Marine Invasions Research Lab Publications List

All 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001


Blakeslee, AMH, I. Altman, AW Miller, JE Byers, CE Hamer, and GM Ruiz. 2011. Parasites and invasions: a biogeographic examination of parasites and hosts in native and introduced ranges. Journal of Biogeography. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2699.2011.02631.x

Blakeslee AMH, J Canning-Clode, E Lind, G Quilez-Badia. 2011. Biological invasions in the 21st century: ecological impacts, predictions, and management across the land and sea. Environmental Research 111: 891-892.

Boos, K., GV Ashton, EJ Cook. 2011. The Japanese skeleton shrimp Caprella mutica Schurin, 1935 (Crustacea, Amphipoda) in European coastal waters. In Galil, B., PF Clark, JT Carlton (eds.). In the Wrong Place - Alien Marine Crustaceans: Distribution, Biology and Impacts. Invading Nature - Springer Series in Invasion Ecology, Vol. 6, ISBN: 978-94-007-0590-6

Canning-Clode J, P Fofonoff, GF Riedel, M Torchin, and GM Ruiz. 2011. The Effects of Copper Pollution on Fouling Assemblage Diversity: A Tropical-Temperate Comparison. PLoS ONE 6(3): e18026. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0018026

Canning-Clode, J, AE Fowler, JE Byers, JT Carlton, and GM Ruiz. 2011 ‘Caribbean Creep’ chills out: climate change and marine invasive species. PLos ONE 6(12):1-5 Available online

Chang, AL, AMH Blakeslee, AW Miller, GM Ruiz. 2011. Establishment Failure in Biological Invasions: A Case History of Littorina littorea in California, USA. PLoS ONE 6(1): e16035. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0016035

Cohen, CS, L McCann, T Davis, L Shaw, and GM Ruiz. 2011. Discovery and significance of the colonial tunicate Didemnum vexillum in Alaska. Aquatic Invasions 6(3):263-271 Open Access

Crooks, JA, AL Chang, and GM Ruiz. 2011. Aquatic Pollution Increases the Relative Success of Invasive Species. Biol Invasions 13:165-176 link 

de Rivera CE, BP Steves, PW Fofonoff, AH Hines, and GM Ruiz. 2011. Potential for high latitude marine invasions along western North America. Diversity and Distributions 17: 1198-1209

de Rivera CE, ED Grosholz, GM Ruiz. 2011. Multiple and long term impacts of an introduced marine predator. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 429:145-155.

Freestone AL, RW Osman, GM Ruiz, ME Torchin. 2011. Stronger predation pressure in tropics shapes species richness patterns in marine communities. Ecology 92: 983-993.

Miller, AW, M Frazier, GE Smith, ES Perry, GM Ruiz, and MN Tamburri. 2011 Enumerating Sparse Organisms in Ships’ Ballast Water: Why Counting to 10 is Not so Easy. Environ. Sci. Technol.  []

Miller, AW, MS Minton, GM Ruiz. 2011. Geographic Limitations and Regional Differences in Ships’ Ballast Water Management to Reduce Marine Invasions in the Contiguous United States. BioScience 61(11):880-887 link

Murphy, KR. 2011. A Note on Determining the Extent of the Water Raman Peak in Fluorescence Spectroscopy. Appl. Spectrosc. 65:233-236 link

Panova M, Blakeslee AMH, Miller AW, Mäkinen T, Ruiz GM, et al. 2011. Glacial History of the North Atlantic Marine Snail, Littorina saxatilis, Inferred from Distribution of Mitochondrial DNA Lineages. PLoS ONE 6(3): e17511. [doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0017511]

Ruiz, GM, PW Fofonoff, B Steves, A Dahlstrom. 2011. Marine Crustracean Invasions in North America: A Synthesis of Historical Records and Documented Impacts. In Galil, B., PF Clark, JT Carlton (eds.). In the Wrong Place - Alien Marine Crustaceans: Distribution, Biology and Impacts. Invading Nature - Springer Series in Invasion Ecology, Vol. 6, ISBN: 978-94-007-0590-6

Ruiz, GM, PW Fofonoff, B Steves, SF Foss and SN Shiba. 2011. Marine Invasion History and Vector Analysis of California: a Hotspot for Western North America. Diversity Distrib. 17:362–373.


Altman, I, AMH Blakeslee, GC Osio, C Rillahan, S Teck, JJ Meyers, JE Byers and AA Rosenberg. 2010. A practical approach to guide the implementation of ecosystem-based management using the Gulf of Maine marine ecosystem as a case study. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment. doi:10.1890/080186

Ashton GV, MT Burrows, KJ Willis, and E Cook. 2010. Seasonal population dynamics of the non-native Caprella mutica (Crustacea, Amphipoda) on the west coast of Scotland. Mar. Freshwater Res. 61:549-559

Blakeslee, AMH., CH McKenzie, JA Darling, JE Byers, JM Pringle and J Roman. 2010. A hitchhiker's guide to the Maritimes: anthropogenic transport facilitates long-distance dispersal of an invasive marine crab to Newfoundland. Diversity Distrib. 16:879-891.

Canning-Clode J., KO Maloney, SM McMahon, M Wahl. 2010. Expanded view on the local-regional richness relationship by incorporating functional richness and time - a large scale perspective. Global Ecol.Biogeogr. 19:875-885.

Davidson, IC, CJ Zabin, AL Chang, CW Brown, MD Sytsma, GM Ruiz. 2010. Recreational boats as potential vectors of marine organisms at an invasion hotspot. Aquat. Biol. 11:179–191

Doblin, MA, KR Murphy, and GM Ruiz. 2010. Thresholds for tracing ships' ballast water:an Australian case study. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 408, pp. 19-32. PDF

Hoos PM, AW Miller, GM Ruiz, RC Vrijenhoek, JB Geller. 2010. Genetic and historical evidence disagree on likely sources of the Atlantic amethyst gem clam Gemma gemma (Totten, 1834) in California. Diversity and Distributions 16:582-592.

Minton, MS and RN Mack. 2010. Naturalization of plant populations: the role of cultivation and population size and density. Oecologia 164:399-409. 

Murphy, KR, KD Butler, RGM Spencer, CA Stedmon, JR Boehme, and GR Aiken. 2010. The measurement of dissolved organic matter fluorescence in aquatic environments: An interlaboratory comparison. Environ.Sci.Technol 44:9405-9412

Rup MP, SA Bailey, CJ Wiley, MS Minton, AW Miller, GM Ruiz and HJ MacIsaac. 2010. Domestic ballast operations on the Great Lakes: potential importance of Lakers as a vector for introduction and spread of nonindigenous species. Can. J. fish. Aquat. Sci. 67:256-268

Zabin CJ, R Obernolte, JA Mackie, J Gentry, L Harris, and J Geller. 2010. A non-native bryozoan creates novel substrate on the mudflats in San Francisco Bay. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 412:129-139


Blakeslee, AMH, CL Keogh, JE Byers, AM Kuris, KD Lafferty & ME Torchin. 2009. Differential escape from parasites by two competing introduced crabs. Mar Ecol Prog Ser. 393: 83-96.

Brawley, SH, JA Coyer, AMH Blakeslee, JL Olsen, G Hoarau, LE Johnson, JE Byers & WT Stam. 2009. Historical invasions of the intertidal zone of Atlantic North America associated with distinctive patterns of trade and emigration. PNAS 106: 8239-8244.

Canning-Clode J, N Bellou, MJ Kaufmann, and M Wahl. 2009. Local-regional richness relationship in flouling assemblages—effects of succession. Basic and Applied Ecology 10:745–753 

Cohen, AN, CJ Zabin. 2009. Oyster shells as vectors for exoctic oranisms. Journal of Shellfish Research. 28(1):163–167

Davidson IC, CW Brown, MD Sttsma, and GM Ruiz. 2009. The roll of containerships as transfer mechanisms of marine biofouling species. Biofouling 25: 645–655

Fofonoff PW, GM Ruiz, AH Hines, BD Steves and JT Carlton. 2009. Four centuries of biological invasions in tidal waters of the Chesapeake Bay region. In Biological Invasions in Marine Ecosystems: Ecological, Management  and Geographic Perspectives, ed. Gil Rilov and Jeffrey A Crooks.  Ecological Studies 204 (Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg) pp 479–506.

Grosholz ED and GM Ruiz. 2009. Multitrophic effects of invasions in marine and estuarine systems. In Biological Invasions in Marine Ecosystems: Ecological, Management  and Geographic Perspectives, ed. G Rilov and JA Crooks. Ecological Studies 204 (Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg) pp 305–324.

Miller AW, AC Reynolds, C Sobrino and GF Riedel. 2009. Shellfish face uncertain future in High CO2World: Influence of acidification on oyster larvae calcification and growth in estuaries. PLoS One 4: e5661. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0005661

Miller AW and GM Ruiz. 2009. Differentiating successful and failed invaders: Species pools and the importance of defining vector, source and recipient regions. In Biological Invasions in Marine Ecosystems: Ecological, Management  and Geographic Perspectives, ed. G Rilov and JA Crooks.  Ecological Studies 204 (Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg) pp 153–170.

Murphy KR, J Boehme, M Noble, G Smith, and GM Ruiz. 2009. Deducing ballast water sources in ships arriving in New Zealand from southeastern Australia. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 390: 39–53

Ruiz GM, AL Freestone, PW Fofonoff and C Simkanin. 2009. Habitat distribution and heterogeneity in marine invasions dynamics: The importance of hard substrate and artificial structure. In Marine Hard Bottom Communities, ed. M. Wahl. Ecological Studies 206 (Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg) pp 321–332.

Santagata S, K Bacela, DF Reid, KA Mclean, JS Cohen, JR Cordell, CW Brown, TH Johengen, and GM Ruiz. 2009. Concentrated sodium choloride brine solutions as an additional treatment for preventing the introduction of nonindigenous species in the ballast tanks of ships declaring no ballast on board. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 28: 346–353

Wirtz, P and J Canning-Clode. 2009. The invasive bryozoan Zoobotryon verticillatum has arrived at Madeira Island. Aquatic Invasions 4: 669-670

Zabin, CJ. 2009. Battle of the barnacle newcomers: Niche compression in invading species in Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, Hawaii. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 381: 175–182

Zabin, CJ, GV Ashton, CW Brown and GM Ruiz. 2009. Northern range expansion of the Asian kelp Undaria pinnatifida (Harvey) Suringar (Laminariales, Phaeophyceae) in western North America. Aquatic Invasions 4(3):429-434 link


Ashton, GV, MI Stevens, MC Hart, DH Green, MT Burrows, EJ Cook and KJ Willis. 2008.  Mitochondrial DNA reveals multiple Northern Hemisphere introductions of Caprella mutica (Crustacea, Amphipoda). Mol. Ecol. 17:1293-1303

Blakeslee AMH and JE Byers. 2008. Using parasites to inform ecological history: Comparisons among three congeneric marine snails. Ecology 89:1068-1078

Blakeslee AMH, JE Byers and MP Lesser. 2008. Solving cryptogenic histories using host and parasite molecular genetics: the resolution of Littorina littorea's North American origin. Mol Ecol 17:3684-3696

Davidson IC, LD McCann, PW Fofonoff, MD Sysma and GM Ruiz. 2008. The potential for hull-mediated species transfers by obsolete ships on their final voyages. Diversity Distrib 14:518-529

Murphy KR, MP Field, TD Waite, and GM Ruiz. 2008. Trace elements in ships' ballast water as tracers of mid-ocean exchange.  Science of the Total Environment 393:11-26

Murphy KR, CA Stedmon, TD Waite, and GM Ruiz. 2008. Distinguishing between terrestrial and autochthonous organic matter sources in marine environments using fluorescence spectroscopy. Mar. Chem. 108:40-58

Santagata S, ZR Gasiunaite, E Verling, JR Cordell, K Easton, JS Cohen, K Bacela, G Quilez-Badia, TH Johengen, DF Reid, and GM Ruiz. 2008. Effect of osmotic shock as a management strategy to reduce transfers of non-indigenous species among low-salinity ports by ships. Aquatic Invasions 3:61-76

Quilez-Badia G, T McCollin, KD Josefsen, A Vourdachas, ME Gill, E Mesbahi, and CLJ Frid. 2008. On board short time high temperature heat treatment of ballast water: A field trial under operational conditions. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 56:127-135


Blum JC, AL Chang, M Liljesthrom, ME Schenk, MK Steinberg, & GM Ruiz. 2007. The non-native solitary ascidian Ciona intentinalis (L.) depresses species richness. J. Exp. Biol. Mar. Ecol. 342:5-14.

Bullard SG, G Lambert, MR Carman, J Byrnes, RB Whitlatch, GM Ruiz, RJ Miller, L Harris, PC Valentine, JS Collie, J Pederon, DC McNaught, AN Cohen, RG Asch, J Dijkstra, & K Heinonen. 2007.  The colonial ascidium Didemnum sp. A: Current distribution, basic biology and potential threat to marine communities of the northeast and west coasts of North America. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 342:99-108.

Cook, EJ, M Jahnke, M. Kerchof, D Minchin, M Faasse, K Boos and G Ashton. 2007. European expansion of the introduced amphipod Caprella mutica Schurin 1935. Aquat. Invasions 2:411-421.

deRivera C, N Hitchcock, S Teck, B Steves, A Hines, & GM Ruiz. 2007. Larval development rate predicts range expansion of an introduced crab.  Mar. Biol. 150:1275-1288.

Herborg L-M, CL Jerde, DM Lodge, GM Ruiz, & HJ MacIsaac. 2007. Predicting the North American distribution of Chinese mitten crabs (Eriocheir sinensis) using measures of propagule pressure and environmental niche models.  Ecol. Appl. 17:663–674.

McCann LD, NG Hitchcock, JE Winston and GM Ruiz. 2007. Non-native bryozoans in coastal embayments of the southern United States:  New records for the Western Atlantic.  Bull. Mar. Sci. 80: 319-342

McCollin, T, G Quilez-Badia, KD Josefsen, ME Gill, E Mesbahi, and CLJ Frid. 2007. Ship board testing of a deoxygenation ballast water treatment. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 54:1170-1178

Miller AW, GM Ruiz, MS Minton, and RF Ambrose. 2007. Differentiating successful and failed molluscan invaders in estuarine ecosystems. Marine Ecology Progress Series 332:41-51

Ruiz, GM and DF Reid, eds. 2007. Current state of understanding about the effectiveness of ballast water exchange (BWE) in reducing aquaitc nonindigenous species (ANS) introductions to the Great Lakes Basin and Chesapeake Bay, USA: Synthesis and analysis of existing information.  NOAA Technical Memorandum GLERL-142, National Ocean and Atmospheric Administration, Ann Arbor.  PDF available here


Herwig HP, JR Cordell, JC Perrins, PA Dinnel, RW Gensemer, WA Stubblefield, GM Ruiz, JA Kopp, ML House, WJ Cooper. 2006. Ozone treatment of ballast water on the oil tanker S/T Tonsina: chemistry, biology and toxicity. Marine Ecology Progress Series 324:37-55

McGee S, R Piorkowski and GM Ruiz. 2006. Analysis of recent vessel arrivals and ballast water discharge in Alaska: Toward assessing ship-mediated invasion risk. Marine Pollution Bulletin 52:1634-1645

Murphy KR, GM Ruiz, WTM Dunsmuir, and TD Waite. 2006. Optimized parameters for rapid fluorescence-based verification of ballast water exchange by ships. Environmental Science and Technology 40:2357-2362 PDF available here

Ruiz GM, L Fegley, P Fofonoff, Y Cheng, and R Lemaitre. 2006. First records of Eriocheir sinensis H. Milne Edwards, 1853 (Crustacea, Brachyura: Varunidae) for Chesapeake Bay and the mid-Alantic coast of North America.  Aquatic Invasions 1:137-142  PDF available here

Ruiz GM, J. Lorda, A. Arnwine, and K. Lion. 2006.  Shipping patterns associated with the Panama Canal:  Effects on Biotic Exchange? In Bridging Divides: Maritime Canals as Invasion Corridors by Stephan Gollasch, Bella S. Galil and Andrew N. Cohen. Monographiae Biologicae 83 ed. H.J. Dumont.  Springer, Netherlands

Tamburri MN, GE Smith, and TL Mullady. 2006. Quantitative shipboard evaluation of venturi oxygen stripping as a ballast water treatment. 3rd International Conference on Ballast Water Management, 25-26 September 2006.


Carlton JT and GM Ruiz. 2005. Vector science and integrated vector management in bioinvasion ecology:  conceptual frameworks. In: Invasive alien species, HA Mooney, RN Mack, JA McNeely, LE Neville, PJ Schei, and JK Waage (eds).  pp 36-58.  Island Press, Washington.

Carlton JT and GM Ruiz. 2005. The magnitude and consequences of bioinvasions in marine ecosystems: implications for conservation biology. In Marine Conservation Biology: The Science of Maintaining the Sea's Biodiversity, EA. Norse and LB. Crowder (eds.). pp 123-148.  Island Press, Washington.

Choi K-H, W Kimmerer, GE Smith, GM Ruiz, and K Lion. 2005. Post-exchange zooplankton in ballast water of ships entering the San Francisco estuary.  J. Plankton Res. 27: 707-714 PDF available here

deRivera CE, GM Ruiz, JA Crooks, K Wasson, SI Longhart, P Fofonoff, BP Steves, SS Rumrill, MS Brancato, WS Pegau, DA Bulthuis, RK Preisler, GC Schoch, E Bowlby, A Devogelaere, MK Crawford, SR Gittings, AH Hines, L Takata, K Larson, T Huber, AM Leyman, E Collinetti, T Pasco, S Shull, M Anderson, S Powell. 2005. Broad-scale nonindigenous species monitoring along the West Coast in national marine sanctuaries and national estuarine research reserves.  Report to the National Fish & Wildlife Foundation.  PDF of Part IPart II and Part III

deRivera CE, GM Ruiz, AH Hines, and P Jivoff.  2005. Biotic resistance to invasion: native predator limits abundance and distribution of an introduced crab. Ecology 86: 3364-3376 PDF available here

Gilborn A. 2005. Border Patrol: Monitoring marine invasions. SERC report vol 5: 4-5

Jewett EB, AH Hines and GM Ruiz. 2005. Epifaunal disturbance by periodic low levels of dissolved oxygen: native vs. invasive species response. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 304: 31-44 PDF available here

Minton M, E Verling, AW Miller, and GM Ruiz. 2005. Reducing propagule supply and coastal invasions via ships:  effects of emerging strategies.  Front. Ecol. Environ 3:304-308 PDF available here

Murphy KR, GM Ruiz, and M Sytsma. 2005. Standardized sampling protocol verifying mid-ocean ballast water exchange:  Revision III February 8 2005, Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, Edgewater MD. PDF available here

Ruiz GM, GE Smith, et al. 2005. Biological Study of Container Ships Arriving to the Port of Oakland .  Three part final report: (a) Biota Associated with Ballast of Container Ships Arriving to the Port of Oakland . (b) Ballast Water Exchange Efficacy: Results of Tests on Eight Container Ships. (c) Analysis of Biofouling Organisms Associated with the hulls of Container Ships Arriving to the Port of Oakland : A pilot Study. 155pp. PDF available here

Verling E, GM Ruiz, LD. Smith, B Galil, AW Miller and KR Murphy. 2005. Supply-side invasion ecology: characterizing propagule pressure in coastal ecosystems.  Proc. R. Soc. B 272: 1249-1256.  PDF available here


Carlton JT and GM Ruiz. 2004. The magnitude and consequences of bioinvasions in marine ecosystems: implications for conservation biology. In Marine Conservation Biology: The Science of Maintaining the Sea's Biodiversity, Elliott A. Norse and Larry B. Crowder (editors). Island Press, Washington.

Carlton JT and GM Ruiz. 2004. Vector science and integrated vector management in bioinvasion ecology: conceptual frameworks. In: Invasive alien species, HA Mooney, editor. Island Press, Washington.

Fofonoff, P. Spring 2004. How do we defend against invasion? Field Notes, New Jersey Field Office, USFWS. p. 22.

Hines, T, GM Ruiz, NG Hitchcock, and C DeRivera. 2004. Projecting Range Expansion of Invasive European Green Crabs (Carcinus maenas) to Alaska: Temperature and Salinity Tolerance of Larvae. Final Report to Prince William Sound Regional Citizens' Advisory Council.  PDF available here

Miller AW, AL Chang, N Consentino-Manning, and GM Ruiz. 2004. A new record and eradication of the Northern Atlantic alga Ascophyllum nodosom (Phaeophyceae) from San Francisco Bay, California, USA.  J. Phycol. 40: 1028-1031  PDF available here

Murphy KR, JR Boehme, P Coble, J Cullen, P Field, W. Moore , E Perry, R Sherrell, & GM Ruiz. 2004. Verification of mid-ocean ballast water exchange using naturally occurring coastal tracers. Mar. Pollution Bull. 48:711-730.


Clark KL, GM Ruiz, and AH Hines. 2003. Diel variation in predator abundance, predation risk and prey distribution in shallow-water estuarine habitats. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 287:37-55.

Fofonoff, PW, GM Ruiz , B Steves, and JT Carlton. 2003. In Ships or On Ships? Mechanisms of transfer and invasion for non-native species to the coasts of North America. In: Invasive Species: Vectors and Management Strategies, GM Ruiz and JT Carlton (editors), pp. 152-182. Island Press, Washington.

Grosholz ED and GM Ruiz. 2003. Biological invasions drive size increases in marine and estuarine invertebrates. Ecol. Letters 6:700-705.  PDF available here

Murphy KR, GM Ruiz and M Sytsma. 2003. Standardized sampling protocol for verifying mid-ocean ballast water exchange.  Report No. CG-D-11-03, US Coast Guard Research and Development Center, Groton.  Abstract and PDF available here

Ruiz GM and JT Carlton. 2003. Invasion vectors: a conceptual framework for management. In: Invasive Species: Vectors and Management Strategies, GM Ruiz and JT Carlton (editors), pp. 457-504. Island Press, Washington.

Ruiz GM and JT Carlton (editors). 2003. Invasive Species: Vectors and Management Strategies. Island Press, Washington. 600p.

Thresher R, C Proctor, G Ruiz , R Gurney, C MacKinnon, W Walton, L Rodriguez, and N Bax. 2003. Invasion dynamics of the European green crab, Carcinus maenas, in Australia. Mar. Biol. 142:867-876.  PDF available here


Cooper, WJ, GM Dethloff, RW Gensemer, ML House, RA Mueller, GM Ruiz, WA Stubblefield, JR Cordell, PA Dinnel, RP Herwig, JA Kopp, RP Perrins, GM Sonnevil, and E VanderWende. 2002. Full-Scale Ozone Ballast Water Treatment for Removal of marine Invasive Species. Final Report.

Crooks, JA. 2002. Predators of the invasive mussel, Musculista senhousia.  Pacific Science. 56:49-56.

Drake, LA, GM Ruiz, BS Galil, TL Mullady, DO Friedmann, and FC Dobbs. 2002. Microbial ecology of ballast water during a transoceanic voyage and the effects of open-ocean exchange. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 233:13-20.

Drake LA, GM Ruiz, BS Galil, TL Mullady, DO Friedmann, and FC Dobbs. 2002. Voyage aboard the bulk carrier Hadera: changes in microorganism abundance and biomass over time and with respect to ballast water exchange. Aquatic Invaders. Digest of the Aquatic Nuisance Species Clearinghouse, New York Sea Grant. Volume 13(3): 7-12.

Galil B, GM Ruiz, and F Briand (editors). 2002. Executive summary. In: Alien marine organisms introduced by ships in the Mediterranean and Black Seas, p. 5-17. CIESM Worshop Monographs no. 20, Monaco.

Gray, NL, WC Banta,and GI Loeb. 2002. Aquatic biofouling larvae respond to differences in the mechanical properties of the surface on which they settle. Biofouling. 18(4):269-273.

Miller, AW, CL Hewitt, and GM Ruiz. 2002. Invasion success: does size really matter?  Ecology Letters 5:159-162.

Murphy, KR, D Ritz and CL Hewitt. 2002. Heterogeneous zooplankton distribution in a ship's ballast tanks. Journal of Plankton Research, 24:729-734.

Pandey, AK, KR Murphy, M Bednarski, S Heinemann, and M Doblin. 2002. Exotic Species in Ballast Water. Bergesen Horizon. pp. 28-29.

Ruiz GM. 2002. Propagule supply as a driver of biological invasions. In: Alien marine organisms introduced by ships in the Mediterranean and Black Seas, p. 83-86. CIESM Worshop Monographs no. 20, Monaco.

Ruiz GM and CL Hewitt. 2002. Toward understanding patters of coastal marine invasions: A prospectus. In: Invasive aquatic species of Europe, E. Leppakoski, S. Olenin, & S. Gollasch (editors), p. 529-547. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrect.

Walton WC, C MacKinnon, LF Rodriguez, C Proctor, and G Ruiz. 2002. Effect of an invasive crab upon a marine fishery: green crab, Carcinus maenas, predation upon a venerid clam, Katelysia scalarina, in Tasmania ( Australia ). J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 272:171-189.


Coss CA, JAF Robledo, GM Ruiz, and GR Vasta. 2001. Description of Perkinsus andrewsi n. sp. isolated from the baltic clam (Macoma balthica) by characterization of the ribosomal RNA locus, and development of a species-specific PCR-based diagnostic assay. J. Euk. Microbiol. 48: 52-61.

Crooks, JA. 2001.  Oh what a tangled web... The invasion of the mussel Musculista senhousia into marine ecosystems.  Dreissena 11:1-5.

Drake, LA, KH Choi, GM Ruiz and FC Dobbs. 2001. Microbial inventories in ballast water of ships arriving in Chesapeake Bay. Biological Invasions 3:193-199.

Dineen, JF, P Clark, AH Hines, SA Reed, and HP Walton. 2001. Life history, larval description and natural history of Charybdis helleri (Crustacea, Decapoda, Brachyura, Portunidae), an invasive crab in the western Atlantic. J. Crust. Biol. 21(3): 774-805.

Hines AH, GM Ruiz, and J Lin. 2001. Introduction to the English translation. In: Marine species and their distribution in China 's seas, Z Huang editor (translated by J. Lin), pp. 2-14. Kreiger Publishing Company, Malabar.

Murphy, KR, GM Ruiz, P Coble, J Boehme, P Field, J Cullen and W Moore.  2001. Mid-ocean ballast water exchange: approach and methods for verification.  Final Report to U.S. Coast Guard Research and Development Center, 124pp.

Ruiz, GM and JA Crooks. 2001. Biological invasions of marine ecosystems: patterns,effects, and management.  In: Waters in Peril, L. Bendell-Yound and P. Gallagher (editors), p. 1-17.  Kluwer Academic Publications.

Ruiz GM, L McCann, and AW Miller. 2001. Marine invasion research at SERC. On the Rhode. Newsletter of the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center. Volume 8, 5pp.

Ruiz, GM, AW Miller, K Lion, BP Steves, A Arnwine, E Collinetti, and E Wells.  2001(2002).  Status and trends of ballast water management in the United States .  First Biennial Report of the National Ballast Information Clearinghouse. Submitted to United States Coast Guard.  Included in the United States Coast Guard's November 2001 Report to Congress on the voluntary national guidelines for ballast water management released June 3, 2002, 48pp.

Talley, TS, JA Crooks and LA Levin. 2001.  Habitat utilization and alteration by the burrowing isopod, Sphaeroma quoyanum, in California salt marshes. Marine Biology, 138: 561-573.

Wonham, MJ, WC Walton, GM Ruiz, AM Frese and B Galil. 2001. Going to the source: role of the invasion pathway in determining potential invaders. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 215:1-12.


Crooks, JA. 2000. Scale-dependent effects of an introduced, habitat-modifying mussel in an urbanized wetland.  Marine Bioinvasions:  Proceedings of the First National Conference.  Massachusetts Institute of Technology.  154-156pp.

Grosholz, ED, GM Ruiz, CA Dean, KA Shirley, JL Maron and PG Connors. 2000. The impacts of a nonindigenous marine predator in a California Bay. Ecology, 81:1206-1224.  PDF available here

Hines, AH and GM Ruiz (eds). 2000. Biological invasions of cold-water ecosystems: ballast-mediated introductions in Port Valdez/Prince William Sound, Alaska. Final report to Regional Citizen's Advisory Council of Prince William Sound, 313 pp.

Hines AH, GM Ruiz, and LS Godwin. 2000. Assessing the risk of non-indigenous species invasion in a high latitude ecosystem: ballast water treatment facility in Port Valdez, Alaska. In: Marine Bioinvasions, Proceeding of the First National Conference, J. Pederson (editor), p. 81-88. MIT Sea Grant College Program, Cambridge.

Miller AW, GM Ruiz, L Takata, BP Steves, and AH Hines. 2000. Measuring ballast water delivery and management patterns in the United States: the National Ballast Water Information Clearinghouse and National Ballast Survey. In: Marine Bioinvasions, Proceeding of the First National Conference, J. Pederson (editor), p. 308-315. MIT Sea Grant College Program, Cambridge.

Ruiz GM. 2000. Toward understanding patterns of marine invasions in space and time. In: Marine Bioinvasions, Proceeding of the First National Conference, J. Pederson (editor), p. 37-39. MIT Sea Grant College Program, Cambridge.

Ruiz, GM, P Fofonoff, JT Carlton, MJ Wonham and AH Hines. 2000. Invasions of Coastal Marine Communities in North America: Apparent Patterns, Processes, and Biases.  Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 31:481-531. PDF available here

Ruiz, GM, TK Rawlings, FC Dobbs, LA Drake, T Mullady, S Schoenfeld, A Huq and RR Colwell. 2000.  Global spread of microorganisms by ships. Nature, 408:49-50.

Smith LD, DM LaVoie, GM Ruiz, and BS Galil. 2000. Changes in ballast water biota during intracoastal and transoceanic voyages. In J. Pederson (ed.), Marine Bioinvasions, Proceeding of the First National Conference, J. Pederson (editor), p. 278-281. MIT Sea Grant College Program, Cambridge.

Wasson, K, J Toft, B Von Holle and G Ruiz. 2000. Detecting invasions of marine organisms: kamptozoan case histories.   Biological Invasions, 2:59-74.

Wonham, MJ, JT Carlton, GM Ruiz and LD Smith. 2000. Fish and ships: relating dispersal frequency to success in biological invasions. Marine Biology, 136:1111-1121.PDF available here


Fofonoff PW, GM Ruiz, AH Hines, and LD McCann. 1999. Overview of biological invasions in the Chesapeake Bay : Summary of impacts on native biota. In: Conservation of biological diversity: a key to the restoration of the Chesapeake Bay, G.D. Therres (editor), pp. 168-180. Maryland Dept. of Natural Resources, Annapolis

LaVoie, DM, LD Smith, and GM Ruiz. 1999. The potential for intracoastal transfer of nonindigenous species in the ballast water of ships. Estuarine Coastal Shelf Science, 48:551-564

Ruiz, GM, PF Fofonoff, AH Hines, and ED Grosholz. 1999.  Nonindigenous species as stressors in estuarine and marine communities: Assessing invasion impacts and interactions. Limnology and Oceanography, 44:950-972  PDF available here

Ruiz, GM, LS Godwin, J Toft, LD Smith, AH Hines, and JT Carlton. 1999. Ballast water transfer and management by U.S. Navy vessels.  Final report to U.S. Department of Defense, 24pp

Smith, LD, MJ Wonham, LD McCann, GM Ruiz, AH Hines, and JT Carlton. 1999.  Invasion pressure and inoculant survival in a ballast-flooded estuary. Biological Invasions, 1:67-87


Fofonoff, PW, GM Ruiz, AH Hines, and LD McCann. 1998. Overview of biological invasions in the Chesapeake Bay: Summary of impacts on native biota. In G.D. Therres (ed.), Conservation of Biological Diversity: A Key to the Restoration of the Chesapeake Bay and Beyond. Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis, pp. 168-180

Ruiz, GM. 1998. Cross-cutting issues. In Ridgeway RL, WP Gregg, RE Stinner and AG Brown (eds).  Invasive Species Databases, Proceedings of a Workshop, pp. 35-37.  National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII) USGS, Reston , VA.

Ruiz GM, AH Hines, AW Miller, and L Tkata. 1998. National Ballast Information Clearinghouse at SERC: Function and present status. Aquatic Nuisance Species Digest

Ruiz, GM, AH Hines, AW Miller, L Takata and LM Kurzava. 1998. National Ballast Water Information Clearinghouse: Function, design and implementation.  Report I, U.S. Coast Guard, 24pp

Ruiz, GM, AW Miller, and WC Walton. 1998. The bi-coastal invasion of North America by the European green crab: Impacts and management strategies.  Report: Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force, 35pp

Ruiz GM, LD Smith, AH Hines, JT Carlton, and DW Coats. 1998. Ballast water and non-indigenous species in U.S. coastal waters. ICES Cooperative Research Report No. 24. Ballast water: Ecological and fisheries implications, pp. 5-11


Geller JB, E Walton, ED Grosholz, and GM Ruiz. 1997. Cryptic invasions of Carcinus detected by molecular phylogeography. Molecular Ecology 6:901-906. PDF available here

Grosholz ED and GM Ruiz. 1997. Evidence for regional adaptation of black band disease at Carie Bow Cay, Belize. Proceedings of the 8th International Coral Reef Symposium, Panama

Ruiz GM, JT Carlton, ED Grosholz, and AH Hines. 1997. Global invasions of marine and estuarine habitats by non-indigenous species: Mechanisms, extent, and consequences. Am. Zool. 37:621-632

Ruiz GM, PF Fofonoff, AH Hines, AF VonHolle, LD McCann, and JT Carlton. 1997. Analysis of nonindigenous species invasions of the Chesapeake Bay (USA). Part I. Draft Report, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, 1500pp

Ruiz GM and AH Hines. 1997. Patterns of nonindigenous species transfer and invasion in Prince William Sound, Alaska: Pilot Study. Final Report, Regional Citizens' Advisory Council of Prince William Sound, 80pp


Grosholz ED and GM Ruiz. 1996. Predicting the impact of introduced species: lessons from the multiple invasions of the European green crab. Biol. Conserv. 78:59-66

Smith LD, MJ Wonham, LD McCann, DM Reid, GM Ruiz, and JT Carlton. 1996. Biological invasions by nonindigenous species in United States waters: Quantifying the role of ballast water and sediments. Final Report, U.S. Coast Guard and U.S. Dept. of Transportation

Wonham MJ, WC Walton, AM Frese, and GM Ruiz. 1996. Transoceanic transport of ballast water: Biological and physical dynamics of ballasted communities and the effectiveness of mid-ocean exchange. Final Report, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Foundation and the Compton Foundation


Carlton JT, GM Ruiz, LD Smith, and AH Hines. 1995. Ballast Water. Aliens (March 1995) pg18-19

Dittel AI, AH Hines, GM Ruiz, and KK Ruffin. 1995. Effects of shallow water refuge on behavior and density-dependent mortality of juvenile blue crabs in Chesapeake Bay. Bull. Mar. Sci. 57:902-916.

Everett RA, GM Ruiz, and JT Carlton. 1995. Effect of oyster mariculture on submerged aquatic vegetation: an experimental test in a Pacific Northwest estuary. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 125:205-217.

Grosholz ED and GM Ruiz. 1995. The spread and potential impact of the recently introduced European green crab, Carcinus maenas, in central California. Mar. Biol. 122:239-247.

Grosholz ED and GM Ruiz. 1995. The influence of spatial distribution and genetic variation on castration of the xanthid crab Rhithropanopeus harrisii (Gould) by an introduced parasite. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 187:129-145.

Hines AH and GM Ruiz. 1995. Temporal variation in juvenile blue crab mortality: Nearshore shallows and cannibalism in Chesapeake Bay. Bull. Mar. Sci. 57:884-901.

Ruiz GM, AH Hines, LD Smith, and JT Carlton. 1995. An historical perspective on invasions of North American waters by nonindigenous species. Aquatic Nuisance Species Digest 1:1


Everett RA, AH Hines, GM Ruiz, and AH Todd. 1994. Shoreline forests along tidal reaches of Chesapeake Bay do provide environmental benefits: Reply to Garbisch and Garbisch. Wetland Journal 6:16-17


Everett RA and GM Ruiz. 1993. Coarse woody debris as a refuge from predation in aquatic communities: an experimental test. Oecologia 93:475-486

Ruiz GM, AH Hines, and MH Posey. 1993. Shallow water as a refuge habitat for fish and crustaceans in non-vegetated estuaries: an example from Chesapeake Bay. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 99:1-16


Ruiz GM. 1991. Consequences of parasitism to marine invertebrates: Host evolution? Amer. Zool. 31:831-839


Ruiz GM and DR Lindberg. 1989. A fossil record for trematodes: extent and potential uses. Lethaia 22:431-438

Ruiz GM, PG Connors, SE Griffin, and FA Pitelka. 1989. Structure of a wintering dunlin population. Condor 91:562-570
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