Smithsonian Environmental Research Center
P.O. Box 28
Edgewater,Maryland 21037
Office phone: 443-482-2498
Fax: 443-482-2380

1985 Ph.D.,University of Maryland, Marine, Estuarine and Environmental Sciences
1980 B.A.,CornellUniversity, Biochemistry

Professional Experience
Current Senior Scientist, Smithsonian Environmental Research Center
2003-2004 Associate Director, The Academy of Natural Sciences, Estuarine Research Center.
2002-2004 Curator, The Academy of Natural Sciences, Estuarine Research Center.
1996-2001 Associate Curator, ANSERC.
1997-present Participating Faculty, Marine, Estuarine, and Environmental Sciences Program, U. Maryland
1990-1996 Assistant Curator, ANSERC.
1988-1990 Patrick Scholar, ANSERC.
1988-1993 Associate of the Division of Applied Sciences, Harvard University,Cambridge, MA.
1985-1987 Postdoctoral Research Fellow, IPH, Harvard School of Public Health
1986-1990 Adjunct Assistant Professor, Marine Sciences Research Center, SUNY Stony Brook
1980-1985 GRA/TA, U. Maryland, Chemistry Dept. and Chesapeake Biological Laboratory.

Research Interests

Trace metal biogeochemistry, particularly mercury cycling: mechanisms and control of microbial mercury methylation from the cellular to ecosystem level.

Microbial ecology of estuarine, lacustrine and wetland systems; repsonse to stressors.

Sulfate-reducing bacteria and sulfur biogeochemistry

Professional Societies

American Association for the Advancement of Science, American Chemical Society (Geochemistry and Environmental Chemistry Divisions), American Society for Microbiology (Microbial Ecology), American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Estuarine Research Federation, Society for Toxicology and Environmental Chemistry.


Orihel, D.M., M. J. Paterson, P. J. Blanchfield, R.A (Drew) Bodaly, C. C. Gilmour, and H. Hintelmann. Temporal changes in the distribution, methylation, and bioaccumulation of newly deposited mercury in an aquatic ecosystem. Environmental Pollution, online Feb 2008.

Harris, R.C., J.W.M. Rudd, M. Amyot, C.L. Babiarz, K.G. Beaty, P.J. Blanchfield, R.A. Bodaly, B.A. Branfireun, C.C. Gilmour, J. Graydon, A. Heyes, H. Hintelmann, J.P. Hurley, C.A. Kelly, D.P. Krabbenhoft, S.E. Lindberg, R.P. Mason, M.J. Paterson, C.L. Podemski, A. Robinson, K. Sandilands, G.R. Southworth, V.L. St. Louis, and M. Tate. 2007. Rapid response of fish mercury concentrations to whole-catchment additions of isotopically-enriched mercury. PNAS. 104: 16586–16591 (open access).

Miller, C.M., C.C. Gilmour, A. Heyes and R.P. Mason. 2007. Influence of dissolved organic matter on the complexation of Hg under sulfidic conditions. Environ. Tox. Chem. 26: 624–633.(pdf) 

Munthe, J., R.A. (Drew) Bodaly, Brian Branfireun, Charles T. Driscoll, Cynthia Gilmour, Reed Harris, Milena Horvat, Marc Lucotte, Olaf Malm. 2007. Recovery of mercury-contaminated fisheries. Ambio. 36: 33-44.(pdf) 

Krabbenhoft, D., D. Engstrom, C. Gilmour, R. Harris, J. Hurley, and R. Mason. 2007. “Monitoring and Evaluating Trends in Sediment and Water” In: R.Harris, Ed. “Ecosystem Responses to Mercury Contamination: Indicators of Change.” CRC Press, Boca Raton. pp. 47-86.

Kerin, E., C.C. Gilmour, E. Roden, M. T. Suzuki, and R.P. Mason. 2006. Mercury Methylation Among the Dissimilatory Iron-Reducing Bacteria. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 72:7912-7921.(pdf) 

Orihel, D.M., Michael J. Paterson, Cynthia C. Gilmour, R.A (Drew) Bodaly, Paul J. Blanchfield, , Holger Hintelmann, Reed C. Harris, John W. Rudd. 2006. Effect of loading rate on the fate of mercury in littoral mesocosms. Environ. Sci. Tech. 40(19); 5992-6000.(pdf) 

Paterson, Michael J., Paul Blanchfield, Cheryl Podemski, Holger H. Hintelmann, Cynthia C. Gilmour, Reed Harris, N. Ogrinc, John W.M. Rudd, and Ken A. Sandilands. 2006. Bioaccumulation of newly-deposited mercury by fish and invertebrates: an enclosure study using stable mercury isotopes. Can. J. Fish. Aquat Sci. 66:2213-2224.(pdf) 

Rearick, M.S., C.C. Gilmour, A. Heyes, and R. P. Mason. 2005. Measuring sulfide accumulation in diffusive gradients in thins films probes by means of purge and trap followed by ion selective electrode. Environ. Tox. Chem. 24:3043-3047. (pdf)

Sandilands, K.A., J.W.M. Rudd , C.A. Kelly, H. Hintelmann, C.C. Gilmour, and M.T. Tate. 2005. Application of enriched stable mercury isotopes to the Lake 658 watershed for the METAALICUS project, at the Experimental Lakes Area, northwestern Ontario , Canada . Can. Tech. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 2597: viii + 48 p.

Babiarz, C.L., J.P. Hurley, D.P. Krabbenhoft, C.C. Gilmour, and B.Branfireun. 2003. Application of ultrafiltration and stable isotopic amendments to field studies of mercury partitioning to filterable carbon in lake water and overland runoff . Sci. Total Environ. 304: 295-303. (pdf)

Benoit, J., C. Gilmour, A. Heyes, R.P. Mason, C. Miller. 2003. Geochemical and Biological Controls Over Methylmercury Production and Degradation in Aquatic Ecosystems. In: "Biogeochemistry of Environmentally Important Trace Elements", ACS Symposium Series #835, Y. Chai and O.C. Braids, Eds. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC. pp. 262-297. (pdf)

Jay, J.A. K. J. Murray, C.C. Gilmour, R. P. Mason, F.M.M. Morel, A.L. Roberts, and H.F. Hemond. 2002. Mercury Methylation by Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132 in the Presence of Polysulfides. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68: 5741-5745. (pdf)

Warner, K., C.C. Gilmour and D. Capone. 2002. Reductive dechlorination of 2,4-dichlorophenol and related microbial processes under limiting and non-limiting sulfate concentration in anaerobic mid-Chesapeake Bay sediments. FEMS Microbial Ecology. 40:159-165. (pdf)

Benoit, J.M., R.P. Mason, C.C. Gilmour, and G. R. Aiken. 2001. Constants for mercury binding by dissolved organic carbon isolates from the Florida Everglades. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta. 65: 4445-4451. (pdf)

Benoit, J.M., C.C. Gilmour and R.P. Mason. 2001. Aspects of the bioavailability of mercury for methylation in pure cultures of Desulfobulbous propionicus (1pr3). Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67:51-58. (pdf)

Benoit, J.M., C.C. Gilmour and R.P. Mason. 2001. The influence of sulfide on solid-phase mercury bioavailability for methylation by pure cultures of Desulfobulbous propionicus (1pr3). Environ. Sci. Technol. 35 : 127-132. (pdf)

Krabbenhoft, D., J. Hurley, G. Aiken, C. Gilmour, M. Marvin-DiPasquale, W. Orem and R. Harris. 2000. Mercury cycling in the Florida Everglades: A mechanistic study. Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol. 27:1657-1660.

Marvin-DiPasquale, J. Agee, C. McGowan, R.S. Oremland, M.. Thomas, D. Krabbenhoft and C.C. Gilmour. 2000. Methyl-mercury degradation pathways: A comparison among three mercury -impacted ecosystems. Environ. Sci. Technol. 34: 4908-4916. (pdf)

Riedel, G.F., S.A. Williams. G.S. Riedel, C.C. Gilmour and J.G. Sanders. 2000. Temporal and spatial patterns of trace elements in the Patuxent River Estuary: A whole watershed approach. Estuaries. 23:521-535. (pdf)

Gilmour, C.C. and G.S. Riedel. 2000. A survey of size-specific mercury concentrations in game fish from Maryland fresh and estuarine waters. Arch. Environ. Tox. and Chem. 39:53-59. (pdf)

Cleckner, L., C.C. Gilmour, D. Krabbenhoft, P. Garrison, and J. Hurley. 1999. Methylmercury production by periphyton in the Florida Everglades. Limnol. Oceanogr. 44:1815-1825. (pdf)

Benoit, J.M., C.C. Gilmour, R. P. Mason, and A. Heyes. 1999a. Sulfide controls on mercury speciation and bioavailability in sediment pore waters. Environ. Sci. Technol. 33:951-957. (pdf)

Benoit, J.M., R. P. Mason and C.C. Gilmour. 1999b. Estimation of mercury-sulfide speciation in sediment pore waters using octanol-water partitioning and implications for availability to methylating bacteria. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 18:2138-2141. (pdf)

Breitburg, D.L., J.G. Sanders, C.C. Gilmour, C.A. Hatfield, R.W. Osman, G.F. Riedel, S.P. Seitzinger and K.G. Sellner. 1999. Variability in responses to nutrients and trace metals, and transmission of stressor effects through an estuarine food web. Limnology and Oceanography. 44: 837-863. (pdf)

Krabbenhoft, D.P., C.C. Gilmour, J.M. Benoit, C.L. Babiarz, A.W. Andren and J.P. Hurley. 1998. Methylmercury dynamics in littoral sediments of a temperate seepage lake. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 55:835-844.

Gilmour, C.C., G.S. Riedel, M.C. Ederington, J.T. Bell, J.M. Benoit, G.A. Gill and M.C. Stordal. 1998. Methymercury concentrations and production rates across a trophic gradient in the northern Everglades . Biogeochemistry. 40: 327-345. (pdf)

Benoit, J., C.C. Gilmour, R.P. Mason, G.F. Riedel, G.S. Riedel and K. Sullivan. 1998. Behavior of mercury in the Patuxent River Estuary , MD , USA . Biogeochemistry. 40: 249-265. (pdf)

Riedel, G.F, J.G. Sanders and C.C. Gilmour. 1996. Uptake, transformation and impact of selenium in freshwater phytoplankton and bacterioplankton communities. Aquat. Microbial Ecol. 11:43-51.

Bowie, G.L., J.G. Sanders., G.F. Riedel, C.C. Gilmour, D.L. Breitburg, G.A. Cutter and D.B. Porecella. 1996. Assessing selenium cycling and accumulation in aquatic ecosystems. Wat. Air Soil Poll. 90:93-104.

Gilmour, C.C. 1995. Mercury methylation in freshwaters. In: “National Forum on Mercury in Fish,” US EPA Office of Water. June 1995. EPA 823-R-95-002. pp. 23-30.

Watras, C.J., N.S. Bloom, S.A. Claas, K.A. Morrison, C.C. Gilmour and S.R. Craig. 1995. Methylmercury production in the anoxic hypolimnion of a dimictic seepage lake. Wat. Air Soil Poll. 80: 735-745.

Gilmour, C.C. and G.S. Riedel. 1995. Measurement of Hg methylation in sediments using high specific-activity 203 Hg and ambient incubation. Wat. Air Soil Poll. 80: 747-756.

Henry, E.A., L.J. Dodge-Murphy, G.N. Bigham, S.M. Klein and C.C. Gilmour. 1995. Totalmercury and methylmercury mass balance in an alkaline, hypereutrophic urban lake ( Onondaga Lake , N.Y. ). Wat. Air Soil Poll. 80: 509-518.

Gilmour, C.C. and N.S. Bloom. 1995. A case study of mercury and methylmercury dynamics and speciation in a Hg-contaminated sewage treatment plant. Wat. Air Soil Poll. 80: 799-803.

Horwitz, R.J., B. Ruppel, S. Wisniewski, M. Hermanson and C. Gilmour. 1995. Mercury concentrations in freshwater fishes in New Jersey . Wat. Air Soil Poll. 80:885-888.

Henry, E.A., R. Devereux, J.S. Maki, C.C. Gilmour, C.R. Woese, L. Mandelco, R. Schauder, C.C. Remsen and R. Mitchell. 1994. Characterization of a new thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacterium, Thermodesulfovibrio yellowstonii gen. nov. and sp. nov.: Its phylogenetic relationship to Thermodesulfobacterium commune and their origins deep within the bacterial domain. Arch. Microbiol. 161: 62-69.

Sanders, R.W. and C.C. Gilmour. 1994. Accumulation of selenium in a model freshwater food web. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 60: 2677-2683. (pdf)

Gilmour, C.C., E.A. Henry and R. Mitchell. 1992. Sulfate stimulation of mercury methylation in freshwater sediments. Environ. Sci. Technol. 26:2281-2287. (pdf)

Gilmour, C.C. Effect of acid rain on microbial processes in soil and water. 1992. In: "Environmental Microbiology," R. Mitchell, (ed.), Wiley-Liss, Inc., NY. pp. 33-57.

Gilmour, C.C. and E.A. Henry. 1991. Mercury methylation in aquatic systems affected by acid deposition. Environ. Poll. 71:131-169.

Gilmour, C.C., G.S. Riedel and D. Kizer. 1991. Dynamics of the microbial food web in the Patuxent River : Heterotrophic bacterioplankton. Pages 309-318 in J.A. Mihursky and A. Chaney (eds.) New Perspectives in the Chesapeake System: A Research and Management Partnership. Proceedings of a Conference 4-6 December 1990, Baltimore MD. Chesapeake Research Consortium Publication No. 137.

Gilmour, C.C., M.L. Leavitt and M.P. Shiaris. 1990. Evidence against incorporation of exogenous thymidine by sulfate-reducing bacteria. Limnol. and Oceanogr. 35:1401-1409.

Gilmour, C.C. and J.H. Tuttle. 1987. Anaerobic microbial methylation of inorganic tin in estuarine sediment. Microbial. Ecol., 14:233-242.

Gilmour, C.C., J.H. Tuttle, and J.C. Means. 1986. Determination of picogram quantities of methyltins in sediment. Anal. Chem. 58:1848-1851.

Gilmour, C.C, J.H. Tuttle, and J.C. Means. 1985. Tin methylation in sulfide bearing sediments. In: Marine and Estuarine Geochemistry. A.C. Sigleo and A. Hattori, eds. Lewis Publishers, Inc., pp. 239-258.

Jonas, R.B., C.C. Gilmour, D.L. Stoner, M.M. Weir, and J.H. Tuttle. 1984. Comparison of methods to measure acute metal and organometal toxicity to natural aquatic microbial communities. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 47:1005-1011.

Selected Professional Activities

Chesapeake Bay Program, Scientific and Technical Advisory Committee, At-large appointee, 2006-2010.

Eight International Conference on Mercury as a Global Pollutant (Aug 2006): Panel member, plenary/synthesis panel on “ Recovery of Mercury-Contaminated Fisheries.”

EPA Board of Scientific Counselors, Mercury Research Strategy Review, 2005

EPA Science Advisory Board, Member, Ecological Processes and Effects Committee 1999-2005.

SETAC Mercury Monitoring and Assessment Workshop. Sept. 2003.

Participant, EPA Science Forum, Washington DC , May 2003

Technical Advisory Team, Fourth International Conference on Mercury as a Global Pollutant, Hamburg, Germany, Aug. 1996; Sixth ICMGP Minimata Japan, Oct. 2001; Seventh ICMGP Ljubljana Slovenia, June 2004.

Development of the “ Mercury Strategy for the Bay-Delta Ecosystem: A Unifying Framework for Science, Management, and Ecological Restoration” for CALFED, 2001-2003. With J. Wiener and D. Krabbenhoft.

Advisory Committee, CALFED San Francisco Bay Mercury Study, 1999-2002.

Maryland Sea Grant Scientific Advisory Committee, 1991-1993; 2001- 2005..

Consultant, Westinghouse Savannah River Company. Mercury removal in constructed wetlands at Savannah River . 1999-2000.

Peer Reviewer, EPA Draft Mercury Research Strategy, 1999.

Search Committee member, Maryland Sea Grant Director search, 1999-2000.

Invited Participant, EPA Hazardous Substance Research Center Fundamental Research on Mercury Contamination: Technology Transfer. Skidaway Inst. of Oceanography. Oct. 25-26, 1999 .

Science Experts Workshop on Mercury in North American. North American Implementation Task Force on Mercury. Invited plenary speaker. Las Vegas , October 6-8, 1998 .

Chesapeake Bay Toxics Mass Balance Workshop, May 1998.

EPA Science Advisory Board, Consultant to:

Review of ORD's 2000 Research Strategy for Mercury

Ecological Processes and Effects Committee, Blackstone River Initiative. March, 1998.

Review of EPA's Mercury Report to Congress, 1997.

Recent Grants and Contracts:

Gilmour, C.C. “Microbial Metal Bioavailability from Coal-Utilization By-Products.” Frontier GeoSciences/DOE. 2007/2008.

Heyes, A and C.C. Gilmour. Assessment of Mercury Cycling in a Coupled Estuarine/Terrestrial Ecosystem, and Development of a Long-term Ecosystem-Level Mercury Monitoring Site at the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center . Maryland Dept of Natural Resources. 2006-2009.

Gilmour, C.C., A. Heyes, E. Roden and R.P. Mason. METAALICUS: A Whole-watershed, Stable Isotope Study of the Mechanisms of Net Microbial Methylmercury Production. NSF Ecosystems. 2004-2008.

Mason, R.P. and C.C. Gilmour. Investigating the Importance of the Coastal Zone as a Source of Methylmercury to the Ocean. NSF Chemical Oceanography. 2004-2007.

Gilmour, C.C., W. Orem, R. Harris, E. Roden, and S. Roy. “Supporting Research for South Florida Mercury Accumulation. 2006-2007.

Gilmour, C.C. and E. Roden. Aquatic Cycling of Mercury in the Everglades: Linking Everglades Restoration, Land and Air Management. Florida Dept. Environ. Protection. 2003-2006.

Gilmour, C.C. Seed Funding for a Coastal Mercury Network. Smithsonian Marine Science Network, Research Pilot Project. November 2004 – September 2006.

Gilmour, C. Effects of Changing Fly-Ash Pond Chemistry on Methylmercury Production. Electric Power Research Institute. 2005-2006.