RICHARD WILLIAM OSMAN
Smithsonian Environmental Research Center
P.O. Box 28
Edgewater, MD 21037-0028
Fax: 443-482-2380 E-mail: email@example.com
|A.B.||Geology-Biology, Brown University. 1970.|
|Ph.D.||Department of the Geophysical Sciences, University of Chicago . 1975.|
PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE :
|Present||Marine Ecologist, Smithsonian Environmental Research Center . Edgewater, Maryland|
|1995-2003.||Curator, The Academy of Natural Sciences, Estuarine Research Center, St. Leonard, Maryland.|
|1987-1995.||Associate Curator, The Academy of Natural Sciences , Benedict Estuarine Research Center, Maryland .|
Instructor. Marine Ecology. Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, Massachusetts. Course Director - 1988.
|1981-1987.||Assistant Curator, The Academy of Natural Sciences , Benedict Estuarine Research Laboratory, Benedict , Maryland .|
Assistant Research Biologist, Marine Science Institute, University of California , Santa Barbara , California .
|1975-1976.||Assistant Professor. Department of Geology, Northern Illinois University , DeKalb , Illinois .|
Population and community ecology of marine benthic invertebrates including rocky subtidal, estuarine, kelp forest, and salt marsh communities.
Larval settlement and post-settlement recruitment processes including mechanisms of species invasion.
Effects of life history stage on interactions among marine and estuarine organisms.
Ecology of shellfish, particularly the oyster, Crassostrea virginica.
Interacting effects of chemical, physical, and biological stresses on marine and estuarine ecosystems.
Osman, R. W. and R. B. Whitlatch. The control of the development of a marine benthic community by predation on recruits. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 311:117-145.
Bullard, S. G., R. B. Whitlatch, and R. W. Osman. Checking the landing zone: do invertebrate larvae avoid settling near superior competitors? Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 280:239-247.
Laursen, A. E., S. P. Seitzinger, R. Dekorsey, J. G. Sanders, D. L. Breitberg, and R. W. Osman. Multiple stressors in an estuarine system: effects of nutrients, trace elements, and trophic complexity on benthic photosynthesis and respiration. Estuaries 25:57-69.
Stachowicz, J. J., H. Fried, R. W. Osman, and R. B. Whitlatch. Biodiversity, invasion resistance, and marine ecosystem function: reconciling pattern and process. Ecology 83:2575-2590.
Stachowicz, J. J., J. R. Terwin, R. B. Whitlatch, and R. W. Osman. Linking climate change and biological invasions: ocean warming facilitates nonindigenous species invasions. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 99:15497-15550.
Osman, R. W. and R. B. Whitlatch. Ecological interactions of invading ascidians within epifaunal communities of southern New England . Pages 164-174 in: Pederson, J. (ed.), Marine Bioinvasions: Proceedings of the First National Conference, January 24-27, 1999 .
Whitlatch, R. B. and R. W. Osman. Geographical distributions and organism-habitat associations of shallow-water introduced marine fauna in New England. Pages 61-65 in: Pederson, J. (ed.), Marine Bioinvasions: Proceedings of the First National Conference, January 24-27, 1999 .
Breitburg, D. L., J. G. Sanders, C. G. Gilmour, C. A. Hatfield, R. W. Osman, G. F. Riedel, S. P. Seitzinger, and K. G. Sellner. Variability in responses to nutrients and trace elements, and transmission of stressor effects through an estuarine food web. Limnol. Oceangr . 44:837-863.
Osman, R. W., and R. B. Whitlatch. Processes controlling local and regional patterns of invertebrate colonization: application to the design of artificial oyster habitat. Pages 179-197 in: Luckenbach, R. Mann and J. A. Wesson (eds), Oyster Reef Restoration: A Synopsis and Synthesis of Approaches , Virginia Institute of Marine Science Press, Gloucester , VA.
Riedel, G. F., J. G. Sanders, and R .W. Osman. Biogeochemical control of the flux of trace elements from estuarine sediments: effects of seasonal and short-term anoxia. Mar. Environ. Res. 47:349-37
Stachowicz, J. J., R. B. Whitlatch, and R. W. Osman. Species diversity enhances the resistance of marine communities to invasion by exotic species. Science 286:1577-1579.
Whitlatch, R. B., and R. W. Osman. Oyster reefs as metapopulations: restoring and managing spatially fragmented habitats. Pages 199-211 in: Luckenbach, R. Mann and J. A. Wesson (eds), Oyster Reef Restoration: A Synopsis and Synthesis of Approaches , Virginia Institute of Marine Science Press, Gloucester , VA.
Osman, R. W., and R. B. Whitlatch. Local control of recruitment in an epifaunal community and the consequences to colonization processes. Hydrobiologia 375/376:113-123.
Whitlatch, R. B. and R. W. Osman. A new device for studying benthic invertebrate recruitment. Limnol. Oceanogr. 43:516-523.
Riedel, G. F., J. G. Sanders, and R. W. Osman. Biogeochemical control on the flux of trace elements from estuarine sediments: water column oxygen concentrations and benthic infauna. Est. Coastal Shelf Sci. 44:23-38.
Whitlatch, R. B., and R. W. Osman. Approaches for oyster reef restoration in Long Island Sound: understanding the relative importance of local and regional controls of population dynamics. In M. S. Van Patten, ed. Proceedings of the Third Biennial Long Island Sound Research Conference , Connecticut Sea Grant College Program, Groton, CT. pp. 72-78.
|1996||Osman, R. W., and R. B. Whitlatch. Processes affecting newly-settled juveniles and the consequences to subsequent community development. Invert. Reprod. Develop. 30:217-225.|
Osman, R . W., and R. B. Whitlatch. Predation on early ontogenetic life-stages and its effect on recruitment into a marine community. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 117:111-126. (a)
Osman, R. W., and R. B. Whitlatch. The influence of resident adults on settlement: experiments with four species of ascidians. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 190:199-220. (b)
Osman, R. W., and R. B. Whitlatch. The influence of resident adults on recruitment: a comparison to settlement. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 190:169-198. (c)
Osman, R. W., and R. B. Whitlatch. Ecological factors controlling the successful invasion of 3 species of ascidians into marine subtidal habitats of New England . In N. Balcom , ed. Proceedings of the Northeast Conference on Non-indigenous Aquatic Nuisance Species . pp. 49-60. (d)
Whitlatch, R. B., R. W. Osman, A. Frese, R. Malatesta, P. Mitchell, and L. Sedgwick. The ecology of two introduced marine ascidians and their effect on epifaunal organisms in Long Island Sound. In N. Balcom , ed. Proceedings of the Northeast Conference on Non-indigenous Aquatic Nuisance Species . pp. 29-48.
Osman, R. W. and G. R. Abbe. Post-settlement factors affecting oyster recruitment in the Chesapeake Bay , USA . In K. R. Dyer and R. J. Orth, ed. Changes in Fluxes in Estuaries: Implications from Science to Management . Olsen and Olsen Press, Denmark. pp. 335-340.
Sanders, J. G., G. F. Riedel, and R. W. Osman. Arsenic cycling and its impact in estuarine and coastal marine ecosystems. In J. O. Nriagu, ed. Arsenic in the Environment, Part I: Cycling and Characterization . J. Wiley & Sons, New York. pp. 289-308
Whitlatch, R. B., and R. W. Osman. A qualitative approach to managing shellfish populations: assessing the relative importance of trophic relationships between species. J. Shellfish Res. 13:223-236.
Osman, R. W., R. B. Whitlatch, and R. J. Malatesta. Potential role of micro-predators in determining recruitment into a marine community. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 83:35-43.
|1991||Osman, R. W., G. R. Abbe, and D. L. Breitburg. Reduction in oyster recruitment as a consequence of periodic exposure to low-oxygen water. In J. A. Mihursky and A. Chaney, ed. New Perspectives in the Chesapeake System: A Research and Management Partnership . Chesapeake Research Consortium: Solomons, Maryland. pp. 193-200|
Osman, R. W., R. B. Whitlatch, R. J. Malatesta, and R. N. Zajac. Ontogenetic changes in trophic relationships and their effects on recruitment. In M. Barnes and R. N. Gibson, ed. Trophic Relationships in the Marine Environment, Proc. 24th European Mar. Biol. Symp. Aberdeen Univ. Press: Scotland. pp. 117-129
Osman, R. W., R. B. Whitlatch and R. N. Zajac. The effects of resident species on recruitment into a community: larval settlement vs. post-settlement mortality in the oyster, Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin). Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 54:61-73.
Riedel, G. F., J. G. Sanders, and R. W. Osman. The role of three species of benthic invertebrates in the transport of arsenic from contaminated estuarine sediment. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 134:143-155.
Sanders, J. G., R. W. Osman, and G. F. Riedel. Pathways of arsenic uptake and incorporation in estuarine phytoplankton and the filter-feeding invertebrates Eurytemora affinis, Balanus improvisus , and Crassostrea virginica . Mar. Biol. 103: 319-325.
Zajac, R. N., R. B. Whitlatch, and R. W. Osman. Effects of inter-specific density and food supply on survivorship and growth of newly settled benthos. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 56:127-132.
Osman, R. W. The relationship between the vermetid gastropod Serpulorbis squamigerus (Carpenter, 1857) and several species of encrusting bryozoans. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 111:267-284.
Osman, R. W. and T. A. Dean. Intra- and interregional comparisons of equilibrium numbers of species on marine hard substrate islands. J. Biogeogr. 14:53-67.
Riedel, G. F., J. G. Sanders and R. W. Osman. The effect of biological and physical disturbances on the transport of arsenic from contaminated sediments. Est. Coastal Shelf Sci. 25:693-706.
Sanders, J. G. and R. W. Osman. Arsenic incorporation in a salt marsh ecosystem. Est. Coastal Shelf Sci. 20:387-392.
Osman, R. W. Artificial substrates as ecological islands. In J. Cairns , ed. Artificial Substrates . Ann Arbor Science Publishers, Inc., Massachusetts . pp. 71-114.
Osman, R. W. and J. A. Haugsness. Mutualism among sessile invertebrates: a mediator of competition and predation. Science 211:846-848.
Day, R. W. and R. W. Osman. Predation by Patiria miniata (Asteroidea) on bryozoans: prey diversity may depend on the mechanism of succession. Oecologia 51:300-309.
Osman, R. W. Marine ecology. A review of Biology of Benthic Organisms. Science 199:1970.
Osman, R. W. The influence of seasonality and stability on the species equilibrium. Ecology 59:383-399.
Osman, R. W. and R. B. Whitlatch. Patterns of species diversity: fact or artifact? Paleobiology 4:41-54.
Osman, R. W. The influence of disturbance on local diversity, and biogeographic implications. J. of Paleont. 51, Supplement: 19. (abstract)
Osman, R. W. The establishment and development of a marine epifaunal community. Ecol. Monog. 47:37-63.
Osman, R. W. A community for communities. A review of Ecology and Evolution of Communities. Paleobiology 3:238-244.
Osman, R. W. Island biogeographic theory as a major principle for understanding marine epifaunal communities. Biol. Bull. 149:440. (abstract)
|HONORS AND DISTINCTIONS :|
Participant, CORONA (Coordinating Research on the North Atlantic) workshop, Isle of Shoals, New Hampshire
|1995||Plenary Speaker, 7th International Congress on Invertebrate Reproduction, Santa Cruz, California.|
Adjunct Professor, Department of Marine Sciences, University of Connecticut .
Co-Host for Benthic Ecology Meetings held at Chesapeake Biological Laboratory, Solomons, Maryland.
|1985||Visiting Research Scholar, University of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.|
|1982||Participant, Symposium on Population Biology and Ecology of Clonal Organisms, Yale University.|
Invited Speaker, Symposium on the Use of Artificial Substrates in Ecological Research, Annual Meeting of the American Society of Zoologists, Seattle, Washington.
Participant, NSF Workshop on Ecology of Marine Parasitism, University of California , Santa Barbara .
Invited Speaker, Second North American Paleontological Conference.
Participant, Coral Reef Workshop, Smithsonian Institution.
|American Association for the Advancement of Science
American Society of Limnology and Oceanography
American Society of Naturalists
British Ecological Society
Ecological Society of America
Estuarine Research Federation
|REVIEWING ACTIVITIES :|
National Science Foundation (Biological Oceanography, Environmental Biology, Geology & Paleontology, International Programs, Polar Programs [Review Panel - 1993], Population Biology, Small Business Program); U.S. Department of Agriculture; Hudson River Foundation; Jeffress Memorial Trust; NOAA (Sea Grant [NJ Sea Grant Review Panel - 1997], National Underwater Research Program); Maryland Department of Natural Resources; Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection; Smithsonian Research Program; Washington State Fish and Wildlife; FRST (New Zealand).
American Midland Naturalist; American Naturalist; American Zoologist; Aquatic Living Resources; Biological Bulletin; Biometrics; Ecology; Ecological Applications; Ecological Indicators; Ecological Monographs; Estuaries; Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science; Fishery Bulletin; Hydrobiologia; Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology; Limnology and Oceanography; Marine Biology; Marine Ecology Progress Series; Marine Technology Society Journal; Oecologia; Paleobiology; Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences; Science.
Books and Symposia Volumes:
|Marine Biodeterioration - An Interdisciplinary Study; Third International Ocean Disposal Symposium; Fifth International Ocean Disposal Symposium; Symposium on the Importance of Habitat Structure; Manual for the Identification of Coastal Marine Zooplankton; 32nd European Marine Biology Symposium; Conference on Concepts and Controversies in Tidal Marsh Ecology.|
|Academy of Natural Sciences; Australian Institute of Marine Sciences; Boston University Marine Program; Case Western Reserve University; Chesapeake Biological Laboratory; Maryland Department of Natural Resources; Northeastern University; Rutgers University; Scripps Institute of Oceanography; Smithsonian Environmental Research Center; Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Panama; State University of New York, Buffalo; State University of New York, Stony Brook; University of Adelaide, Australia; Leigh Marine Laboratory, University of Auckland, New Zealand; University of California Davis; University of California Santa Barbara; University of Chicago; University of Connecticut; University of Delaware; University of Florida; University of Maryland; University of Melbourne, Australia; University of Pennsylvania; University of Southern|
CONTRIBUTED PAPERS :
American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Albuquerque, New Mexico
|1999.||National Conference on Marine Bioinvasions, Cambridge, Massachusetts
American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Santa Fe, New Mexico
Estuarine Research Federation, New Orleans, Louisiana.
|1997||32nd European Marine Biology Symposium, Lyskiel, Sweden.
Estuarine Research Federation, Providence, Rhode Island.
|1995||Northeast Conference on Nonindigenous Aquatic Species, Hartford, Connecticut.
Symposium on Oyster Reef Habitat Restoration, Williamsburg, Virginia.
7th International Congress on Invertebrate Reproduction, Santa Cruz, California.
Estuarine Research Federation Meetings, Hilton Head, South Carolina.
ECSA-ERF Joint Symposium, Changes in Fluxes in Estuaries: Implications from Science to Management, Plymouth, England.
Chesapeake Research Consortium Conference, New Perspectives in the Chesapeake System: A Research and Management Partnership, Baltimore, Maryland.
24th European Marine Biology Symposium, Oban, Scotland.
|1989-1991||NOAA Shellfish Meetings and Workshop, Milford , Connecticut .|
AAAS, Frontiers in Marine Science, Boston, Massachusetts.
|1986-02||Annual Benthic Ecology Meetings.|
|1980||Annual meeting of the American Society of Zoologists, Seattle, Washington.|
Annual Benthic Ecology Meetings.
|1978||Second North American Paleontological Conference, Lawrence, Kansas.|
Annual meeting of the Society for the Study of Evolution, New Orleans, Louisiana.
CORONA - Coordinating Research on the North Atlantic Workshop, Isle of Shoals, New Hampshire
|1995||NOAA -Sea Grant Workshop on priorities for research on oyster disease in Williamsburg, Virginia.
Population and Community Ecology in the Chesapeake Bay, St. Leonard, Maryland. (co-organizer)
|1993||Chesapeake Bay Environmental Effects Committee Workshop on toxics in Chesapeake Bay, Solomons, Maryland.|
|1992||Chesapeake Bay Environmental Effects Committee Workshop on toxics in Chesapeake Bay, Virginia Institute of Marine Science, Gloucester Point, Virginia.
EPA Workshop on Biological Indicators of Ecological Stress, Chesapeake Biological Laboratory, Solomons, Maryland.
Oyster Ecology Workshop on the introduction of Crassostrea gigas into Chesapeake Bay, Annapolis, Maryland (Rapporteur).
|1990||Oyster Management Workshop, Horn Point Environmental Laboratory.|
Benthic Predator-Prey Dynamics, University of Connecticut.
Larval Ecology, University of Connecticut.
|1980||Ecology of Marine Parasitism, University of California, Santa Barbara.|
|1970||Research Assistant. University of Chicago .|
Research Assistant. University of Chicago and Marine Biological Laboratory.
Assistant Research Biologist. Marine Science Institute, University of California, Santa Barbara, California. Investigations of the colonization of sessile invertebrates near the San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station. Studies of local variation in recruitment patterns of epifauna as a function of distance from kelp beds at different mainland and California Channel Islands sites. Temperate-tropical comparisons of colonization processes.
Assistant, Associate, and Full Curator. The Academy of Natural Sciences , Estuarine Research Center , Maryland . Investigations of competition and mutualism among sessile species, development of image analysis techniques for studying epifaunal communities, experimental field and laboratory studies of the effects of pollutants and phytoplankton species composition on benthic invertebrates, experimental studies of the effect of infaunal invertebrates on the release of pollutants from sediments, investigation of the effects of spatial competitors and larval predators on the recruitment of the oyster Crassostrea virginica , examination of the effect of seasonal hypoxia and sedimentation on oyster recruitment, examination of the importance of post-settlement processes in controlling recruitment into New England marine epifaunal communities, studies on the effects of introduced species on native communities, mesocosm and large-scale enclosure studies of the effects of multiple stressors on estuarine ecosystems, examination of the effects of predators on recruitment into tidal marshes, integration of physical and biological processes in controlling recruitment into subtidal communities, development of automated sampling devices for planktonic larvae and epifaunal and infaunal recruits, ecological effectiveness of marsh restoration.
PARTICIPATION IN GRADUATE EDUCATION:
University of Connecticut - 5 completed, 2 in progress.
|Ph.D.:||University of Maryland - 1 completed, 1 in progress.
University of Connecticut - 1 completed, 1 in progress.
Virginia Institute of Marine Science - 1 in completed.
|TEACHING EXPERIENCE :|
|1975-76||Northern Illinois University . Undergraduate courses in Introductory Oceanography.|
|1984-88||Instructor - Summer Marine Ecology Course, Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, Massachusetts . Course Director - 1988.|
GRANT AWARDS :
|GRANT AWARDS :|
|NOAA, Maryland Sea Grant. 2003-2005. "The use of stable isotopes to measure contaminant movements in wetlands". Co-principal Investigator.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency - STAR Program. 2003-2006. "Stressor-response modeling of the interactive effects of climate change and land use patterns on the alteration of coastal marine systems by invasive species". Co-principal Investigator.
NOAA, National Sea Grant - Aquatic Nuisance Species Research Program. 2003-2005. "Evaluation of the importance of ship hull fouling by privately-owned vessels as a vector for the transport of invasive species along the Eastern Seaboard". Co-principal Investigator.
National Science Foundation. 2000-2005. ALTREB - Long-term studies on the recruitment dynamics of shallow water epifaunal communities@. Co-principal Investigator.
Jessie B. Cox Charitable Trust. 2000-01. "The effectiveness of marsh restoration in restoring natural marsh communities in coastal New England@.
National Science Foundation. 1999-2002. APhysical and biological processes linking the sources of larval production to subsequent recruitment into subtidal benthic communities@. Co-principal Investigator.
National Science Foundation. 1999-2002. ADevelopment of an autonomous, time-series benthic recruitment sampler@. Co-principal Investigator.
NOAA, National Sea Grant Program. 1999-2001. ASpecies and community attributes affecting invasion success by exotic species@. Co-principal Investigator.
Marsh Ecology Research Program. 1998-99. "The effect of local differences in predators and grazers on the establishment and persistence of communities in new marsh habitat".
Jessie B. Cox Charitable Trust. 1997-98. "The introduction of exotic species into coastal marine communities of New England: the threat to natural resources". NOAA, Coastal Oceans Program, 1995-00. "The importance of understanding ecological complexity to predicting effects of multiple stressors on coastal systems". Co-principal Investigator.
National Science Foundation, 1994-95. "Ontogenetic changes in trophic and competitive relationships and their control of the development of benthic communities - supplemental funding".
National Science Foundation, 1991-94. "Ontogenetic changes in trophic and competitive relationships and their control of the development of benthic communities". Co-principal Investigator.
NOAA, Maryland Sea Grant, 1990-93. "The role of benthic infauna and fluctuating oxygen concentrations in the flux of toxic trace elements from Chesapeake Bay sediments". Co-principal Investigator.
Patuxent River Endowment, 1989-90. "The influence of turbidity and sedimentation on oyster recruitment: larval survivorship, larval settlement, and post-settlement juvenile mortality". Co-principal Investigator.
NOAA, Connecticut Sea Grant, 1986-90. "The importance of competing sessile species to the recruitment and survivorship of juvenile oysters". Co-principal Investigator.
Environmental Associates, 1986-88. "The effect of benthic infauna on the transport of pollutants from sediments". Co-principal Investigator.
Jessie B. Cox Charitable Trust, 1985-87, 1988-1990. "The contribution of larval settlement and post-settlement mortality to the recruitment of the oyster, Crassostrea virginica". Visiting Research Fellowship, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia, 1985.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Chesapeake Bay Program, 1985-87. "Transportation, transformation, and uptake of arsenic in the Chesapeake Bay". Co-principal Investigator.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, 1984-87. "Experimental investigation of transportation, transformation, and uptake of arsenic in estuarine ecosystems". Co-principal Investigator.
Whitehall Foundation, 1983-85. "Intra- and interspecific competition among marine epifaunal invertebrates: colonies as individuals".
Marine Review Committee, California Coastal Commission, 1976-81. "Study of the effects of the San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station on marine hard substrate communities".
National Science Foundation, 1974-75. Doctoral Dissertation Grant. "Colonization processes in epifaunal invertebrates".