CURRICULUM VITAE

Dennis Francis Whigham

Senor Scientist and Deputy Director
Smithsonian Environmental Research Center
P. O. Box 28
Edgewater, Maryland 21037-0028

Born: Mt. Pleasant, Pennsylvania, 1 August 1944

Marital Status:

Married to Janice Leatherby Whigham. Two children: Melisa Jane and Michael Cross

Education:

B.A., Wabash College, Crawfordsville, Indiana, 1966

Ph.D., The University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, 1971

Employment and other positions:

Teaching Assistantship, UNC, 1966-68, 1970-71

Assistant Professor, Rider College, 1971-76

Visiting Assistant Professor, University of Colorado, Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research, 1973

Associate Professor, Rider College (tenured), 1976-77

Visiting Assistant Professor, Westminster College, 1974

Adjunct Associate Professor, University of Florida, 1979-81

Research Ecologist, Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, 1977-present

Acting Associate Director for Science, Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, 1981-82

Visiting Scientist, University of Utrecht, The Netherlands, 1987-88

Bullard Fellow, Harvard University, Harvard Forest, Petersham, MA, 1998

Professor of Landscape Ecology, Utrecht University, The Netherlands. 1999-2009

Deputy Director, Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, 2005-present


Professional Societies, Activities and Awards:

American Institute of Biological Sciences

Ecological Society of America

Torrey Botanical Club

Association of Southeastern Biologists

Botanical Society of America

International Association of Ecology

Society of Wetlands ScientistsBoard of Editors, Ecological Society of America (1981-1985)

Board of Editors, Plant Species Biology (current)

Board of Editors, Wetland Ecology and Management (current)

Board of Editors, International Journal of Ecology and Environmental Sciences (current)

Board of Editors, AoBPlants (electronic journal started by Oxford University Press (current)


INTECOL steering committee of International Wetlands Working Group

Council of American Institute of Biological Sciences

Steering Committee, International Wetlands Working Group, National Resources Defense Council

Scientific Advisory Committee, Jug Bay Wetlands Sanctuary

Vegetation Section (Ecological Society of America): Vice-Chair 1989-1990, Chair 1990-1991.

Steering committee for Wetlands of the Chesapeake Conference

Steering committee for Atlantic White Cedar Symposium

Chairman, Committee to evaluate use of wetlands in L-Lake, Savannah River Plant, U. S. Department of Energy

Site Review Panel, National Science Foundation, University of South Carolina

Member of the US-Indo Sub-Commission on Science and Technology, US Department of State

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Panel for review of national freshwater wetlands program

Program for Belize Scientific Advisory Committee

Board of Directors, Chesapeake Wildlife Heritage

Steering Committee, Caribbean Coral Reef Ecosystems, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution

International Steering Committee, International Conference on Land-Water Interactions, New Delhi, India

Belt Woods Advisory Committee, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Cooperative Forestry Division

USDA Water Quality Panel, Washington, DC, June, 1991

Program Chair, Ecological Society of America. Responsible for 1993 and 1994 meetings at University of Wisconsin and University of Tennessee

Future Meetings Committee, Ecological Society of America, 1995-1999

Co-chair, Local Organizing Committee, Ecological Society of America 1998 meeting in Baltimore, MD

Riverine Wetlands Functional Assessment Working Group, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

Forests for the Future Interagency Working Group (Central America Cluster Group), U.S. Agency for International Development

Research Policy Committee and Provosts Council, Smithsonian Institution (1994-1996)

Board of Directors, Wintergreen Nature Foundation, Wintergreen VA (1991 - present)

Scientific Review Panel. Everglades Nutrient Threshold Workshop. South Florida Water Management District, 1995-1996.

Organizing Committee for The First Science and Humanities Dialogue (What About Increase), Smithsonian Institution, March 12-14, 1995, Washington, DC.

Scientific Peer Review Panel, State of Florida, Advise on nutrient threshold research by conducting workshops, visits to field research sites, and review of reports and publications. 1996-1997

Japanese Government Research Award for Foreign Specialists. June 1997

Bullard Fellowship. Harvard Forest. Harvard University. January-July, 1998

Jug Bay Award for outstanding contributions to the Jug Bay Wetlands Sanctuary, Presented by the Friends of Jug Bay, March, 1997

Science Advisor, Chesapeake Wildlife Heritage, Easton, MD, 1998- present

Board of Directors, Maryland/DC Chapter of The Nature Conservancy. 1998 - present

Vice-Chair for Science, Maryland/DC Chapter of the Nature Conservancy. 2000 – present

Planning Committee, Smithsonian Institution and American Institute of Biological Sciences, Year 2000 meeting entitled: Biology:

A Century of Achievements/A Future of Challenges (1999 - 2000)

Member, Patuxent River Oil Spill Citizens Advisory Committee. Appointed by Governor of Maryland. 2000-2002

Member, External Review Panel. Louisiana Coast-Wide Reference Monitoring System. 2001

International Steering Committee. 7th INTECOL International Wetlands Conference. July 25-30, 2004. Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Chair of Committee to review student posters at 7th INTECOL International Wetlands Conference. July 25-30. Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Liaison between Society of Wetlands Scientists and 7th INTECOL International Wetlands Conference. Jul 25-30. Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Member, In situ Conservation Committee, North American Regional Group, Orchid Specialists Group. Species Survival Commission, IUCN.

Invited member of external committee to review research planning. Kachemak Bay National Estuarine Reserve, Homer, AK. June 2003.

Presented briefing to House and Senate staff on the ecology of headwater wetlands. Briefings organized by the Sierra Club and American Rivers. November 20, 2003. Washington, DC.

Committee member for proposal reviews for the Caribbean Coral Reef Ecosystem program. Smithsonian Institution, National Museum Natural History. 1995-present. Washington, DC.

NSF Site-review team. Georgia Coastal Ecosystems (GCE) LTER project, May 28-29, 2003.

Presented briefing to staff of House of Representatives on the impacts of Hurricane on efforts to restore coastal Louisiana.
Organized by the Ecological Society of America. December, 2005

Member, National Technical Review Committee (NTRC) established by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the State of Louisiana to provide independent review of the program being developed to restore Coastal Louisiana (2003-present).

Member. Ecological Society of America group of experts formed to provide advice to the U.S. Government. 2005-present.
NSF Site-review team. Luquillo LTER mid-term review, June, 2009

Associate Partner in SOWAR (Soil, Water and Coastal Resources). SOWACOR is a collaboration between Utrecht University (The Netherlands) and King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) in Saudi Arabia. 2009 – present.

Society of Wetland Scientists representative to COPUS (Committee on Public Understanding of Science). 2007-present

Society of Wetland Scientists. Chair of the Wetland Concerns Committee, Member of the Committee to develop an agreement between SWS and Springer to publish Wetlands. 2007-present

Representative of Society of Wetland Scientists to the Public Affairs Committee of the American Institute of Biological Sciences. 2007-present.

Technical workgroup to assist in the development of a wetland monitoring strategy. Maryland Department of the Environment. 2009-present.

Associate Member of a global network of orchid seed banks. In association with Kew Gardens, London. 2009-present.

Reviewed articles and proposals (I typically review 20 or more articles and proposals per year) for:
Ambio, American Journal of Botany, American Naturalist, American Midlands Naturalist, Ecology, Estuaries, Bioscience, Canadian Journal of Botany, Journal Environmental Quality, Wetlands, Wetlands Ecology and Management, Journal of the Torrey Botanical Club, Bartonia, Estuarine Coastal Shelf Science, Folia Geobotanica & Phytotaxonomica, Plant Species Biology, National Science Foundation, U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Sea Grant proposals (California, Maryland, Delaware, Louisiana, Michigan, North Carolina), Environmental Management, The Nature Conservancy, The Center for Field Research, U. S. Forest Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture, Journal of Ecology, Journal of Wildlife Management, Journal of Vegetation Science, Vegetatio, Journal of Tropical Biology, National Research Council, South Florida Water Management District, Grant Agency of the Czech Republic, Plant Ecology, Lindleyana, New England Wildflower Society, Southeastern Naturalist, Ecological Engineering.

Dissertation: An ecological study of Uvularia perfoliata in the Blackwood Division of the Duke Forest, North Carolina. 183 pp. 1971.


Publications:
Whigham, D. F. 1969. Vegetation patterns on the north slope of Bluff Mountain Ashe County, North Carolina. Journal Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society 85: 1-15.

Whigham, D. F. and H. Lieth. 1971. North Carolina productivity profile - 1971. Deciduous Forest Biome memo report #71-10. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. 142pp.

Whigham, D. F. and H. Lieth. 1971. Contribution from the Triangle Site - Deciduous Forest Biome: Vegetation analysis and microclimatic studies. Deciduous Forest Biome memo report #71-10. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. 70pp.

Wells, C., D. F. Whigham, and H. Lieth. 1972. Investigations of mineral cycling in an upland Piedmont forest. Journal Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society 88: 66-78.

Whigham, D. F. 1974. An ecological life history study of Uvularia perfoliata. American Midlands Naturalist 91: 343-359.

Whigham, D. F. 1974. Preliminary ecological studies of a freshwater tidal marsh along the Delaware River. Biology Department, Rider College, Lawrenceville, NJ. 66pp.

Whigham, D. F. and R. L. Simpson. 1975. Ecological studies of the Hamilton Marshes. Progress Report for the period June 1974 - January 1975. Biology Department, Rider College, Lawrenceville, NJ. 185pp.

West, D. and D. F. Whigham. 1976. Seed germination of arrow arum (Peltandra virginica). Bartonia 44: 44-49.

Whigham, D. F. and R. L. Simpson. 1976. The potential use of tidal marshes in the management of water quality in the Delaware River. pp. 173-186. In: J. Tourbier and R. R. Pierson, Jr. (eds). Biological Control of Water Pollution. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, PA.

Sharp, D., H. Lieth, and D. F. Whigham. 1976. Assessment of regional productivity in North Carolina. pp. 132-146. In: H. Lieth and R. H. Whittaker (eds). Primary Productivity of the Biosphere. Springer-Verlag, NY.

Whigham, D. F. and R. L. Simpson. 1976. Sewage spray irrigation in a Delaware River freshwater tidal marsh. pp. 119-144. In: D. Tilton, J. Kadlec, and C. J. Richardson (eds). Freshwater Wetlands and Sewage Effluent Disposal. School of Natural Resources. University of Michigan. Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Whigham, D. F. and R. L. Simpson. 1977. Growth, mortality, and biomass partitioning in freshwater tidal wetland populations of wild rice (Zizania aquatica var aquatica). Bulletin Torrey Botanical Club 104: 347-351.

Whigham, D. F., R. L. Simpson, and K. Lee. 1977. The effect of sewage effluent on the structure and function of a freshwater tidal marsh ecosystem. pp. 59-62. In: Annual report fiscal year 1977. New Jersey Water Resources Research Institute. Rutgers University. New Brunswick, NJ.

Whigham, D. F., J. McCormick, R. E. Good, and R. L. Simpson. 1978. Biomass and primary production of freshwater tidal wetlands. pp. 3-20. In: R. E. Good, D. F. Whigham, and R. L. Simpson (eds). Freshwater Wetlands: Ecological Processes and Management Potential. Academic Press. NY.

Simpson, R. L., D. F. Whigham, and R. Walker. 1978. Nutrient movement in freshwater tidal wetlands with special reference to Delaware River wetlands. pp. 243-258. In: R. E. Good, D. F. Whigham, and R. L. Simpson (eds). Freshwater Wetlands: Ecological Processes and Management Potential. Academic Press. NY.

Good, R. E., D. F. Whigham, and R. L. Simpson, editors. 1978. Freshwater wetlands: Ecological Processes and Management Potential. Academic Press. NY. 378pp.

Whigham, D. F. and R. L. Simpson. 1978. Nitrogen and phosphorus movement in a freshwater tidal wetland receiving sewage effluent. pp. 2189-2203. In: Coastal Zone 78: Symposium on Technical, Environmental, Socioeconomic, and Regulatory Aspects of Coastal Zone Management. American Society of Civil Engineering. San Francisco, CA.

Whigham, D. F. and R. L. Simpson. 1978. The relationship between aboveground and belowground biomass of freshwater tidal wetland macrophytes. Aquatic Botany 5: 355-364.

Simpson, R. L. and D. F. Whigham. 1978. The effect of sewage effluent on the structure and function of a freshwater tidal marsh ecosystem. pp. 49-55. In: Annual report fiscal year 1978. New Jersey Water Resources Research Institute. Rutgers University. New Brunswick, NJ.

Simpson, R. L., D. F. Whigham, and K. Brannigan. 1979. The mid-summer insect communities of freshwater tidal wetland macrophytes. Bulletin New Jersey Academy of Sciences 24: 22-27.

Whigham, D. F. and S. E. Bayley. 1979. Nutrient dynamics in freshwater wetlands. pp. 468-478. In: P. E. Greeson, J. R. Clark, and J. E. Clark (eds). Wetland Functions and Values: The State of Our Understanding. American Water Resources Association. Minneapolis, MN.

Whigham, D. F., R. L. Simpson, and M. A. Leck. 1979. The distribution of seeds, seedlings, and established plants of Peltandra virginica in a freshwater tidal wetland. Bulletin Torrey Botanical Club 106: 193-199.

Whigham, D. F. and M. McWethy. 1980. Studies of the pollination ecology of Tipularia discolor (Orchidaceae). American Journal of Botany 67: 550-555.

Whigham, D. F., R. L. Simpson, and K. Lee. 1980. The effect of sewage effluent on the structure and function of a freshwater tidal marsh ecosystem. Water Resources Research Institute. Rutgers University. New Brunswick, NJ. 160pp.

Whigham, D. F. 1981. An outside perspective on the Pocosin Conference and suggestions for further work. pp. 345-356. In: C. J. Richardson (ed). Pocosin Wetlands. Hutchinson Ross Publishing Co. Stroudsburg, PA.

Lynch, J. and D. F. Whigham. 1982. Configuration of forest patches necessary to maintain bird and plant communities. Report PPRP-59. Maryland Power Plant Siting Program. Maryland Department of Natural Resources. Annapolis, MD 88pp.

Whigham, D. F. 1982. Using freshwater wetlands for wastewater management in North America. pp. 506-514. In: B. Gopal, R. E. Turner, R. G. Wetzel, and D. F. Whigham (eds). Wetlands: Ecology and Management. International Scientific Publications. Jaipur, India.

Whigham, D. F., J. O'Neill, and M. McWethy. 1982. Ecological implications of manipulating coastal wetlands for purposes of mosquito control. pp. 459-476. In: B. Gopal, R. E. Turner, R. G. Wetzel, and D. F. Whigham (eds). Wetlands: Ecology and Management. International Scientific Publications. Jaipur, India.

Gopal, B., R. E. Turner, R. G. Wetzel, and D. F. Whigham, editors. 1982. Wetlands: Ecology and Management. International Scientific Publications. Jaipur, India. 514 pp.

Gopal, B., R. E. Turner, R. G. Wetzel, and D. F. Whigham. 1982. Introduction. pp. xi-xvi. In: B. Gopal, R. E. Turner, R. G. Wetzel, and D. F. Whigham (eds). Wetlands: Ecology and Management. International Scientific Publications. Jaipur, India.

Gopal, B., R. E. Turner, R. G. Wetzel, and D. F. Whigham. 1982. Wetlands: Ecology and Management. Part II. Vol. 7 (1-3). International Journal of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. International Scientific Publications. Jaipur, India. 220 pp.

Whigham, D. F., J. O'Neill, and M. McWethy. 1982. The effect of three marsh management techniques on the ecology of irregularly flooded Chesapeake Bay wetlands. Vegetation and water quality studies. Coastal Zone Unit. Maryland Department of Natural Resources. Annapolis, MD. 96pp.

Whigham, D. F. and R. L. Simpson. 1982. Germination and dormancy studies of Pontederia cordata. Bulletin Torrey Botanical Club 108: 255-259.

Simpson, R. L., R. E. Good, M. A. Leck, and D. F. Whigham. 1983. The ecology of freshwater tidal wetlands. Bioscience 33: 255-259.

Whigham, D. F. 1984. The influence of vines on the growth of Liquidambar styraciflua. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 14: 37-39.

Whigham, D. F. 1984. Biomass and nutrient allocation patterns in Tipularia discolor. OIKOS 42: 303-313.

Jordan, T. E., D. L. Correll, and D. F. Whigham. 1984. Nutrient flux in the Rhode River: Tidal exchange of nutrients by brackish marshes. Estuarine and Coastal Shelf Science 17: 651-667.

Lynch, J. and D. F. Whigham. 1984. Effects of forest fragmentation on breeding bird communities in Maryland. Biological Conservation 28: 287-324.

Whigham, D. F. 1984. The effect of competition and nutrient availability on the growth and reproduction of Ipomoea hederacea (Ivy-leaf morning glory) in an abandoned old-field. Journal of Ecology 72: 721-730.

Whigham, D. F. 1985. Vegetation in wetlands receiving sewage effluent: The importance of the seed bank. pp. 231-242. In: P. J. Godfrey, E. R. Kaynor, S. Pelczarski, and J. Benforado (eds). Proceedings of the Conference on Ecological Considerations in Wetlands Treatment of Municipal Wastewater. Van Nostrand. NY.

Whigham, D. F., C. Chitterling, B. Palmer, and J. O'Neill. 1986. Modification of runoff from upland watersheds - The influence of a diverse riparian ecosystem. pp. 305-332. In: D. L. Correll (ed). Watershed Research Perspectives. Smithsonian Institution Press. Washington, DC.

Drake, B., W. Arp, P. S. Curtis, P. W. Leadley, J. Sager, and D. Whigham. 1986. Effects of elevated CO2 on Chesapeake Bay wetlands. I. Description of the study site. Report 034. U. S. Department of Energy. Washington, DC. 32pp.

Drake, B., W. Arp, J. Craig, P. S. Curtis, P. W. Leadley, and D. F. Whigham. 1987. Effects of elevated CO2 on Chesapeake Bay wetlands. II. Gas exchange and microenvironment in open top chambers. Report 038. U. S. Department of Energy. Washington, DC. 97pp.

Hull, J. C. and D. F. Whigham. 1987. Vegetation patterns in 6 bogs and adjacent forested wetlands in the Inner Coastal Plain of Maryland. pp. 143-173. In: A. D. Laderman (ed). Atlantic White Cedar Wetlands. Westview Press. Boulder, CO.

Whigham, D. F. 1987. Water quality studies of six bogs on the Inner Coastal Plain of Maryland. pp. 85-90. In: A. D. Laderman (ed). Atlantic White Cedar Wetlands. Westview Press. Boulder, CO.

Whigham, D. F. 1987. Ecosystem processes and biogeographical considerations. pp. 371-374. In: A. D. Laderman (ed). Atlantic White Cedar Wetlands. Westview Press. Boulder, CO.

Whigham, D. F. and C. J. Richardson. 1988. Soil and plant chemistry of an Atlantic White Cedar wetland on the Inner Coastal Plain of Maryland. Canadian Journal of Botany 66: 568-576.

Jordan, T. E. and D. F. Whigham. 1988. The importance of standing dead shoots of the narrow leaved cattail - Typha angustifolia. Aquatic Botany 29: 310-319.

Weiner, J. and D. F. Whigham. 1988. Size variability and self-thinning in wild rice (Zizania aquatica). American Journal of Botany 75: 445-448.

Leck, M. A., R. L. Simpson, D. F. Whigham, and C. F. Leck. 1988. Plants of the Hamilton Marshes: A Delaware River freshwater tidal wetland. Bartonia 54: 1-17.

Whigham, D. F., B. Palmer, and C. Chitterling. 1988. The impacts of freshwater wetlands on water quality: A landscape perspective. Environmental Management 12: 663-671.

Whigham, D. F. and J. O'Neill. 1988. The importance of predation and small scale disturbance to two woodland herb species. pp. 243-252. In: M. J. A. Werger, P. J. M. van der Aart, H. J. During and J. T. A. Verhoeven. Plant Form and Vegetation Structure: Adaptation, Plasticity and Relation to Herbivory. SPB Academic Publishers. The Hague, The Netherlands.

Curtis, P. S., B. G. Drake, P. W. Leadley, W. Arp, and D. F. Whigham. 1989. Growth and senescence of plant communities exposed to elevated CO2 concentrations on an estuarine marsh. Oecologia 78: 20-26.

Curtis, P. S., B. G. Drake, and D. F. Whigham. 1989. Nitrogen and carbon dynamics in C3 and C4 estuarine marsh plants grown under elevated CO2 in situ. Oecologia 78: 297-301.

Whigham, D. F., R. L. Simpson, R. E. Good, and F. Sickels. 1989. Decomposition and nutrient-metal dynamics of litter in freshwater tidal wetlands. pp. 167-187. In: R. R. Sharitz and J. W. Gibbons (eds.). Freshwater Wetlands and Wildlife. U. S. Department of Energy Symposium Series No. 61. USDOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information, Oak Ridge, Tennessee.

Snow, A. A. and D. F. Whigham. 1989. Costs of flower and fruit production in Tipularia discolor (Orchidaceae). Ecology 70: 1286-1293.

Jordan, T. E., D. F. Whigham, and D. L. Correll. 1989. The role of litter in nutrient cycling in a brackish marsh. Ecology 70: 1906-1915.

Whigham, D. F,. T. E. Jordan, and J. Miklas. 1989. Biomass and resource allocation of Typha angustifolia: The effects of within and between year variations in salinity. Bulletin Torrey Botanical Club 116: 364-370.

Jordan, T. E., D. F. Whigham, and D. L. Correll. 1990. Effects of nutrient and litter manipulations on production, nutrient status, and herbivory of Typha angustifolia in a brackish marsh. Aquatic Botany 36: 179-191.

Whigham, D. F. and S. Nusser. 1990. The response of Distichlis spicata and Spartina patens to nitrogen fertilization in hydrologically altered wetlands. pp. 31-38. In: D. F. Whigham, R. E. Good, and J. Kvet (eds.). Wetland Ecology and Management: Case studies. Kluwer Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.

Holland, M. J., D. F. Whigham, and B. Gopal. 1990. The characteristics of wetland ecotones. pp. 171-198. In: R. J. Naiman and H. Decamps (eds). The Ecology and Management of Aquatic-Terrestrial Ecotones. Vol. 4. Man and the Biosphere Series. The Parthenon Publishing Group. Canforth, UK.

Whigham, D. F., R. E. Good, and J. Kvet (eds). 1990. Wetland Ecology and Management: Case Studies. Tasks for Vegetation Science. Kluwer Publishers. Dordrecht, The Netherlands. 175 pp.

Curtis, P. S., L. M. Balduman, B. G. Drake, and D. F. Whigham. 1990. The effect of elevated atmospheric CO2 on belowground processes in C3 and C4 estuarine marsh communities. Ecology 71: 2001-2007.

Whigham, D. F. 1990. The effects of experimental defoliation on the growth and reproduction of a woodland orchid - Tipularia discolor (Orchidaceae). Canadian Journal of Botany 68: 1812-1816.

Whigham, D. F. and M. M. Brinson. 1990. Wetland value impacts. pp. 401-421. In: B. C. Patten (ed). Wetlands and Shallow Continental Water Bodies, Volume 1. SPB Academic Publishing, The Hague, The Netherlands.

Whigham, D. F., P. Zugasty Towle, E. F. Cabrera, J. O'Neill, and E. Ley. 1990. The effect of variation in precipitation on basal area growth and litter production in a tropical dry forest in Mexico. Tropical Ecology 31: 23-34.

de Kroon, H., D. F. Whigham, and M. A. Watson. 1991. Effects of rhizome severing, fertilization and timing of shoot senescence on clonal growth of mayapple. Functional Ecology 5: 360-369.

Whigham, D. F. and E. Cabrera Cano. 1991. Survival and growth beneath and near parents: The case of Myrcianthes fragrans (Myrtaceae). pp. 61-76. In: G. Esser and D. Overdieck (eds). Modern Ecology: Basic and Applied Aspects. Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Whigham, D. F. and J. O'Neill. 1991. The dynamics of flowering and fruit production in two eastern North American terrestrial orchids, Tipularia discolor and Liparis lilifolia. pp. 89-101. In: T. C. E. Wells and J. H. Willems (eds). Population Ecology of
Terrestrial Orchids. SPB Academic Publishers. The Hague, The Netherlands.

Whigham, D. F., I. Olmsted, E. Cabrera Cano, and M. Harmon. 1991. The impact of Hurricane Gilbert on trees, litterfall, and woody debris in a dry tropical forest in the northeastern Yucatan Peninsula. Biotropica 23: 434-441.

Spira, T. P., A. Snow, D. F. Whigham, and J. Leak. 1992. Flower visitation, pollen deposition, and pollen competition in Hibiscus moscheutos (Malvaceae). American Journal of Botany 79: 428-433.

Whigham, D. F. and R. L. Simpson. 1992. Annual variation in biomass and production of a tidal freshwater wetland and comparison with other wetland systems. Virginia Journal of Science 43: 5-14.

Zimmerman, J. K. and D. F. Whigham. 1992. Ecological functions of carbohydrates stored in corms of Tipularia discolor (Orchidaceae). Functional Ecology 6: 575-581.

Whigham, D. F., D. Dykyjova, and S. Hejny (eds). 1992. Wetlands of the World. Vol. 1. Africa, Australia, Canada and Greenland, Indian Subcontinent, Mediterranean, Mexico, New Guinea, United States. Handbook of Vegetation Sciences. Junk
Publishers. Dordrecht, The Netherlands. 768pp.

Takasu, H., S. Kawano, H. Kato, T. Sato, F. H. Utech, and D. F. Whigham. 1992. Life history characteristics of Uvularia species. pp. 224-238. In: S. Kawano (ed). Comparative Floristic and Ecological Studies on the Temperate Elements in North America. Report of the 1989-1991 North America Project. Monbusho International Scientific Research Program. Kyoto, Japan.

Arp, W. J., B. G. Drake, W. T. Pockman, P. S. Curtis, and D. F. Whigham. 1993. Interactions between C3 and C4 salt marsh plant species during four years of exposure to elevated atmospheric CO2. Vegetatio 104/105: 133-143.

Dillenburg, L. R., D. F. Whigham, A. H. Teramura, and I. N. Forseth. 1993. Effects of below- and aboveground competition from the vines Lonicera japonica and Parthenocissus quinquefolia on the growth of the tree host Liquidambar styraciflua. Oecologia 93: 48-54.

Dillenburg, L. R., D. F. Whigham, A. H. Teramura, and I. N. Forseth. 1993. Changes in resource availability to the tree host Liquidambar styraciflua due to below- and aboveground competition with the vines Lonicera japonica and Parthenocissus quinquefolia. American Journal of Botany 80: 244-252.

Rasmussen, H. and D. F. Whigham. 1993. Seed ecology of dust seeds in situ: A new study technique and its application in terrestrial ecology. American Journal of Botany 80: 1374-1378.

Cipollini, M. L., B. G. Drake, and D. F. Whigham. 1993. Effects of elevated CO2 on growth and carbon/nutrient balance in the deciduous woody shrub Lindera benzoin (L.)Blume (Lauraceae). Oecologia 96: 339-346.

Whigham, D. F., J. O'Neill, and M. Cipollini. 1993. The role of tree gaps in maintaining the population structure of a woodland herb: Cynoglossum virginianum L. Plant Species Biology 8: 107-115

Cipollini, M. L., D. F. Whigham, and J. O'Neill. 1993. Population growth, structure, and seed dispersal in the understory herb Cynoglossum virginianum: a population and patch dynamics model. Plant Species Biology 8: 117-129

Cipollini, M. L. and D. F. Whigham. 1994. Sexual dimorphism and cost of reproduction in the dioecious shrub Lindera benzoin (Lauraceae). American Journal of Botany 81: 65-75.

Verhoeven, J. T. A., D. F. Whigham, M. van Kerkhoven, and J. O'Neill. 1994. A comparative study of nutrient-related processes in geographically separated wetlands: Towards a science base for functional assessment procedures. pp. 91-106. In: W. J. Mitsch (ed). Wetlands of the World: Biogeochemistry, Ecological Engineering, Modelling and Management. Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Brinson, M. M., W. Kruczynski, L. C. Lee, W. L. Nutter, R. D. Smith, and D. F. Whigham. 1994. Developing an approach for assessing the functions of wetlands. pp. 615-624. In: W. J. Mitsch (ed). Wetlands of the World: Biogeochemistry, Ecological Engineering, Modelling and Management. Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Cipollini, M. L., D. Wallace-Senft, and D. F. Whigham. 1994. Forest canopy structure and seed dispersal in the dioecious shrub Lindera benzoin (Lauraceae): a model of population and forest dynamics. Journal of Ecology 82: 621-633.

Dillenburg, L. R., A. H. Teramura, I. N. Forseth, and D. F. Whigham. 1995. Physiological and morphological basis of growth responses of Liquidambar styraciflua to competition with the vines Lonicera japonica and Parthenocissus quinquefolia. American Journal of Botany 82: 454-461.

Whigham, D. F. 1995. The role of wetlands, ponds, and shallow lakes in improving water quality. pp. 163-172. In: K. Steele (ed). Animal Waste and the Land-Water Interface. Lewis Publishers, New York, NY.

Harmon, M. E., D. F. Whigham, J. Sexton, and I. Olmsted. 1995. Decomposition and stores of woody detritus in the dry tropical forests of the Northeastern Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Biotropica 27: 305-316.

Lynch, J. F. and D. F. Whigham. 1995. The role of habitat disturbance in the ecology of overwintering migratory birds in the Yucatan Peninsula. pp. 199-214. In: S. Sader , M. Wilson, and A. Estrada, (eds). Conservation of Neotropical Migratory Birds in Mexico. Maine Agricultural and forest Experiment Station, Miscellaneous Publication 727. Orono, ME.

Brinson, M.M., F.R. Hauer, L.C. Lee, W.L. Nutter, R.D. Rheinhardt, R.D. Smith, D.F. Whigham. 1995. A Guidebook for Application of Hydrogeomorphic Assessments to Riverine Wetlands. Wetlands Research Program Technical Report WRP-DE-11. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS.

Whigham, D.F. 1997. Ecosystem functions and ecosystem values. pp. 225-240. In: N.L. Christensen Jr. and R.D. Simpson (eds). Ecosystem Function and Human Activities: Reconciling Economics and Ecology. Chapman and Hall, New York, NY.

Kudoh, H. and D. F. Whigham. 1997. Genetic structure and gene flow in Hibiscus moscheutos (Malvaceae) populations. American Journal of Botany 84: 1280-1285.

Wijesinghe, D.K. and D.F. Whigham. 1997. Costs of producing clonal offspring and the effects of plant size on population dynamics in the woodland herb Uvularia perfoliata . Journal of Ecology 85: 907-920.

Whigham, D. F., J.F. Lynch, and M.B. Dickinson. 1998. Dynamics and ecology of natural and managed forests in Quintana Roo, Mexico. pp. 267-282. In: R. B. Primack, D. Bray, H.A. Galletti, and I. Ponciano (eds). Timber, Tourists and Temples: Conservation and Development in the Maya Forest of Belize, Guatemala, and Mexico. Island Press, Washington, DC.

Rasmussen, H.N. and D.F. Whigham. 1998. The underground phase: A special challenge in studies of terrestrial orchid populations. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 126: 49-64.

Rasmussen, H. N. and D. F. Whigham. 1998. Importance of woody debris in seed germination of Tipularia discolor (Orchidaceae). American Journal of Botany 85: 829-834.

Brinson, M. M., R. D. Smith, D. F. Whigham, L. C. Lee, R. D. Rheinhardt, and W. L. Nutter. 1998. Progress in development of the hydrogeomorphic approach for assessing the functioning of wetlands. pp. 383-406. In A. J. McComb and J. A. Davis (eds.). Wetlands for the Future. Gleneagles Publishing, Adelaide, Australia.

Whigham, D. F. and J. F. Lynch. 1998. Responses of plants and birds to hurricane disturbance in a dry tropical forest in Quintana Roo, Mexico. pp. 165-186. In: F. Dallmeier and J.A. Comiskey (eds). Forest Biodiversity in North, Central and South America, and the Caribbean. Research and Monitoring. Man and The Biosphere Series, Vol. 21, The Parthenon Publishing Group, New York.

Kayashi, K., S. Yoshida, H. Kato, F.H. Utech, D.F. Whigham, and S. Kawano. 1998. Molecular systematics of the Genus Uvularia and selected Liliales based upon matK and rbcL gene sequence data. Plant Species Biology 13: 129-146.

Kitamura, K., J. O’Neill, D.F. Whigham, and S. Kawano. 1998. Demographic genetic analyses of the American Beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.). Genetic variations of seed populations in Maryland. Plant Species Biology 13: 147-154.

Kudoh, H. and D. F. Whigham. 1998. The effect of petal-size manipulation on pollinator/seed predator mediated female reproductive success of Hibiscus moscheutos (Malvaceae) populations. Oecologia 117: 70-79.

Whigham, D.F., M.B. Dickinson, and N.V.T. Brokaw. 1999. Tropical forest treefalls and windstorms. pp. 223-252. In: L. Walker (ed). Ecosystems of Disturbed Ground. Elsevier, Amsterdam. The Netherlands.

Aerts, R., J. T. A. Verhoeven, and D. F. Whigham. 1999. Plant-mediated controls on nutrient cycling in temperate fens and bogs. Ecology 80: 2170-2181.

Feller, I. C., D. F. Whigham, J. O’Neill, and K. L. McKee. 1999. Within-stand nutrient cycling in tropical forested wetlands. Ecology 80: 2193-2205.

Whigham, D.F., R.R. Twilley, and I.C. Feller. 1999. Within-stand nutrient cycling in wetland ecosystems. Ecology 80: 2137-2138.

Kudoh, H., H. Shibaike, H. Takasu, D. F. Whigham, and S. Kawano. 1999. Genet structure and maintenance of clonal diversity in a temperate deciduous forest herb, Uvularia perfoliata. Journal of Ecology 84: 244-257.

Jordan, T.E., D.F. Whigham, K. Hofmockel, and N. Gerber. 1999. Restored wetlands in crop fields control nutrient runoff. pp. 49-60. In: J. Vymazal, (ed). Nutrient Cycling and Retention in Natural and Constructed Wetlands. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Whigham, D.F., L.C. Lee, M.M. Brinson, R.D. Rheinhardt, M.C. Rains, J.M. Mason, H. Khan, M. B. Ruhlman, and W.B. Nutter. 1999. Hydrogeomorphic (HGM) assessment - A test of user consistency. Wetlands 19: 560-569.

Dickinson, M.B. and D.F. Whigham. 1999. Low rates of natural regeneration of Mahogany in felling gaps after selective logging in Quintana Roo, Mexico. International Forestry Review 1: 35-39.

Whigham, D.F. and A.S. Chapa. 1999. Timing and intensity of herbivory: Its influence on the performance of clonal woodland herbs. Plant Species Biology 14: 29-38.

Whigham, D.F. 1999. Ecological consequences of wetland preservation, restoration, creation and assessment. Science of the Total Environment 240: 31-40.

Rheinhardt, R., D.F. Whigham, H. Khan, and M. Brinson. 2000. Floodplain vegetation of headwater streams in the Inner Coastal Plain of Virginia and Maryland. Castanea 65: 21-35.

Dickinson, M.B., D.F. Whigham, and S.M. Hermann. 2000. Tree regeneration in felling and natural treefall disturbances in a semideciduous tropical forest in Mexico. Forest Ecology and Management 134: 137-151.
Kudoh, H. and D. F. Whigham. 2001. A genetic analysis of hydrologically dispersed seeds of Hibiscus moscheutos (L.).
American Journal of Botany 88: 588-593.

Verhoeven, J.T.A., R. van Logtestijn, D.F. Whigham, and J. O'Neill. 2001. Some basic characteristics of the nutrient dynamics of riverine wetlands. Wetlands 21: 210-222.

Wijesinghe, D.K. and D. F. Whigham. 2001. Nutrient foraging in woodland herbs: a comparison of three species of Uvularia (Liliaceae) with contrasting below-ground morphologies. American Journal of Botany 88: 1071-1079.

Dickinson, M.B., S.M. Hermann and D.F. Whigham. 2001. Low rates of background canopy-gap disturbance in a seasonally-dry forest in the Yucatan Peninsula with a history of fires and hurricanes. Journal of Tropical Ecology 17: 895-902.

Kitamura, K. Homma, H. Takasu, S. Hagiwara, F.H. Utech, D.F. Whigham, and Shoichi Kawano. 2001. Demographic genetics of the American beech, Fagus grandifolia. II. Genet substructure of populations for the Blue Ridge, Piedmont, and the Great Smoky Mountains. Plant Species Biology 16: 219-230.

Rasmussen, H.N. and D. F. Whigham. 2002. Phenology of roots and mycorrhiza in five orchid species differing in phototrophic strategy. New Phytologist 154: 797-807.

Feller, I.C., K.L. McKee, D.F. Whigham, and J.P. O’Neill. 2002. Nitrogen vs. phosphorus limitation across an ecotonal gradient in a mangrove forest. Biogeochemistry 62: 145-175.

Feller, I.C., H. Kudoh, C.E. Tanner, D.F. Whigham. 2002. Sex-biased herbivory in Jack-in-the-Pulpit (Arisaema triphyllum) by a specialist Thrips (Heterothrips arisaemae). Pp. 163-172. Proceedings 7th International Thysanoptera Conference. Reggio Callabrio, Italy.

Whigham, D.F., M.A. Pittek, K.H. Hofmockel, T. Jordan, and A.L. Pepin. 2002. Biomass and nutrient dynamics in restored wetlands on the outer Coastal Plain of Maryland. Wetlands 22: 562-574.

Whigham, D.F., J. O’Neill, M. McCormick, C. Smith, H.R. Rasmussen, B. Caldwell, and T. Daniell. 2002. Interactions between decomposing wood, mycorrhizas, and terrestrial orchid seeds and protocorms. Pp 117-132. In: P. Kindlmann, J.H. Willems, and D.F. Whigham (eds.). Underlying Mechanisms of Trends and Fluctuations in Terrestrial Orchid Populations. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Kindlmann, P., J.H. Willems, and D.F. Whigham (eds.). 2002. Underlying Mechanisms of Tends and Fluctuations in Terrestrial 0rchid Populations. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Feller, I.C., D.F. Whigham, K.L. McKee, and C.E. Lovelock. 2003. Nitrogen limitation of growth and nutrient dynamics in a disturbed mangrove forest, Indian River Lagoon, Florida. Oecologia 134: 405-414.

Whigham, D.F., D.E. Weller, A. Deller Jacobs, T.E. Jordan, and M.E. Kentula. 2003. Assessing the ecological condition of wetlands at the catchment scale. Landschap 2: 99-111.

Verhoeven, J/T.A., M.J. Wassen, D.F. Whigham, H. Middelkoop, and G. van der Lee (eds.) 2003. The Integration of Scales in Landscape Ecology. Landschap 2. 129pp

Whigham, D.F. and J.H. Willems. 2003. Demographic studies and life-history strategies of temperate terrestrial orchids as a basis for conservation. Pp. 137-158. In: K.W. Dixon, S.P Kell, R.L. Barrett and P.J. Cribb (eds.). Orchid Conservation. Natural History Publications, Kota Kinabaluk Sabah.

Kitamura, K., M. Tatsuyoshi, H. Kudoh, J. O’Neill, F.H. Utech, D.F. Whigham, and S. Kawano. 2003. Demographic genetics of the American Beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.) III. Genetic substructuring of Coastal Plain populations in Maryland. Plant Species Biology 18: 13-34.

Whigham, D.F., I. Olmsted, E. Cabrera Cano and A.B. Curtis. 2003. Impacts of hurricanes on the forests of Quintana Roo, Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico. Pp. 193-213. In: A. Gómez-Pompa, M.E. Allen, S.L. Fedick and J.J. Jiménez-Osornio (eds.). The Lowland Maya Area: Three Millennia at the Human-Wildland Interface. Food Products Press, Binghamton, NY

Jordan, T., D.F. Whigham, K. Hofmockel, and M. Pittek. 2003. Nutrient and sediment removal by a restored wetland receiving agricultural runoff. Journal of Environmental Quality 32: 1534-1547.

Whigham, D.F. and T.E. Jordan. 2003. Isolated wetlands and water quality. Wetlands 23: 541-549.

McCormick, M.K., D.F. Whigham, and J. O’Neill. 2004. Mycorrhizal diversity in photosynthetic terrestrial orchids. New Phytologist 163: 425-438.

King, R. S., J. R. Beaman, D. F. Whigham, et al. 2004. Watershed land use is strongly linked to PCBs in white perch in Chesapeake Bay subestuaries. Environmental Science and Technology 38: 6546-6552.

Whigham, D.F. 2004. The ecology of woodland herbs in temperate deciduous forests. Annual Review Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 35: 583-621.

Huber, H., D.F. Whigham, and J. O’Neill. 2004. Timing of disturbance changes the balance between growth and survival of parent and offspring ramets in the clonal forest understory herb Uvularia perfoliata. Evolutionary Ecology 18: 521-539.

King, R. S., M. E. Baker, D. F. Whigham, D. E Weller, T. E. Jordan, M. K. Hurd, and P. F. Kazyak. 2005. Spatial considerations for linking watershed land cover to ecological indicators in streams. Ecological Applications 15: 137-153.

Hosaka, N., S.E. Gómez, N. Kachi, J.F. Stuefer, D.F. Whigham. 2005. The ecological benefits of clonal growth in the understory tree Asimina triloba Northeastern Naturalist 12: 11-22.

Shimamura, R., N. Kachi, H. Kudoh and D.F. Whigham. 2005. Visitation of a specialist pollen feeder Althaeus hibisci Oliver (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) to flowers of Hibiscus moscheutos L. (Malvaceae). Journal of the Torrey Botanical Club 132: 197-203.

Orth, K., J.W. Day, D.F. Boesch, E.J. Clairain, W.J. Mitsch, L. Shabman, C. Simenstad, B. Streever, C. Watson, J. Wells, and D.F. Whigham. 2005. Lessons learned: An assessment of the effectiveness of a National Technical Review Committee for oversight of the plan for the restoration of the Mississippi Delta. Ecological Engineering 25: 153-167.

Whigham, D.F., J.P. O’Neill, H.N. Rasmussen, B.A. Caldwell and M.K. McCormick. 2005. Seed longevity in terrestrial orchids – potential for persistent in situ seed banks. Biological Conservation 129: 24-30.

McCormick, M.K., D.F. Whigham, D. Sloan, K. O’Malley, and B. Hopkinson. 2006. Orchid-fungal fidelity: a marriage meant to last? Ecology 87: 903-911

Verhoeven, J.T.A., B. Beltman, R. Bobbink, and D.F. Whigham (Editors). 2006. Wetlands and Natural Resource Management. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Bobbink, R., B. Beltman, J.T.A. Verhoeven, and D.F. Whigham (Editors). 2006. Wetlands: Functioning, Biodiversity, Conservation, and Restoration. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Bobbink, R., D.F. Whigham, B. Beltman, and J.T.A. Verhoeven. 2006. Wetland functioning in relation to biodiversity, conservation and restoration. Pp. 1-12. In: R. Bobbink, B. Beltman, J.T.A. Verhoeven, and D.F. Whigham (Editors). 2006. Wetlands: Functioning, Biodiversity, Conservation, and Restoration. Springer-Verlag, Berlin

Barendregt, A. , D.F. Whigham, P. Meire, A.H. Baldwin and S. Van Damme. 2006. Wetlands in the tidal freshwater zone. Pp. 117-148. In: R. Bobbink, B. Beltman, J.T.A. Verhoeven, and D.F. Whigham (Editors). 2006. Wetlands: Functioning, Biodiversity, Conservation, and Restoration. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Kudoh, H., R. Shimamura, K. Takayama and D.F. Whigham. 2006. Consequences of hydrochory in Hibiscus. Plant Species Biology 21: 127-133.

Ikegami, M., D.F. Whigham, and M.J.A. Werger. 2006. Scirpus olneyi (Cyperaceae) shows phenotypical differentiation in a salt marsh on the east coast of the U.S.A. Polish Botanical Studies 22: 241-249.

King, R.S., W.V. DeLuca, W.V., D.F. Whigham, D.F., and P.P. Marra. 2007 Threshold effects of coastal urbanization on Phragmites australis (Common Reed) abundance and foliar nitrogen in Chesapeake Bay. Estuaries and Coasts 30: 1-13.

Day, J.W. Jr., Boesch, D.F., Clairain, E.J., Kemp, G.P., Laska, S., Mitsch, W.J., Orth, K., Mashriqui, H., Reed, D.R., Shabman, L., Simenstad, C.A., Streever, B.J., Twilley, R.R., Watson, C.C., Wells, J.T., Whigham, D.F. 2007. The Mississippi delta is a model for management of coastal ecosystems facing climate change; effective storm protection is not feasible without restoration of the delta. Science 315: 1679-1684.

Ikegami, M., D.F. Whigham, and M.J.A. Werger. 2007. Responses of rhizome length and ramet production to resource availability in the clonal sedge Scirpus olneyi A. Gray. Plant Ecology 189: 247-259

Jacobs, A.D., D.F. Whigham, D. Fillis, and E. Rehm. 2007. Delaware Comprehensive Assessment Procedure Version 2.0. Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control, Dover, DE 40-08-05/07/04/02. 68 ppm

Weller, D.E., M.N. Snyder, D.F. Whigham, A.D. Jacobs, and T.E. Jordan. 2007. Landscape indicators of wetland conditions in the Nanticoke River watershed, Maryland and Delaware, USA. Wetlands 27: 487-503.

Jordan, T.E., M.P. Andrews, R.P. Szuch, D.F. Whigham, D.E. Weller, and A.D. Jacobs. 2007. Comparing functional assessments of wetlands to measurements of soil characteristics and nitrogen processing. Wetlands 27: 468-486.

Whigham, D.F., A. D. Jacobs, D.E. Weller, T.E. Jordan, M.E. Kentula, S.F. Hornsby, and D.L. Stevens. 2007. Combining HGM and EMAP procedures to assess wetlands at the watershed scale – status of flats and non-tidal riverine wetlands in the Nanticoke River watershed, Maryland (USA). Wetlands 27: 416-132.

Shimamura, R., N. Kachi, H. Kudoh, and D.F. Whigham. 2007. Hydrochory as a determinant of genetic distribution of seeds within Hibiscus moscheutos (Malvaceae) populations. American Journal of Botany 94: 1137-1145 .

Rheinhardt, R., M. McKenney-Easterling, M. Brinson, J.M. Rubbo, R. Brooks, D. Whigham, D. O’Brien, J. Hite, and B. Armstrong. 2007. Canopy composition and forest structure provide restoration targets for low-order riparian ecosystems. Restoration Ecology 17: 51-79.

Tremblay, R.L., R.L. Bateman, A.P. Brown, M. Hachandourian, M.J. Hutchings, S. Kell, H. Koopowitz, C. Lehnebach, and D.F. Whigham. 2007. Density induced rates of pollinaria removal and deposition in the purple enamel orchid Elythranthera brunonis (Endl.)A.S. George. Lankesteriana 7: 229-239.

Whigham, D.F., McCormick, M.K., O’Neill, J.P. 2008. Specialized seedling strategies II: orchids, bromeliads, carnivorous plants, and parasites. pp: 79-100. In: Leck, M.A., V.T. Parker and R.L. Simpson. Seedling Ecology and Evolution. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge, UK

Øien, D-I, J.P. O’Neill, D.F. Whigham, and M.K. McCormick. 2008. Germination ecology of the boreal-alpine terretrial orchid Dactylorhiza lapponica (Orchidaceae). Annals Botanica Fennici 45: 161-171.

Hosaka, N., Kachi, N., Kudoh, H., Stuefer, J.F., Whigham, D.F. 2008. Patch structures and ramet demography of the clonal tree, Asimina triloba, under gap and closed- canopy. Plant Ecology 197: 219-228.

Kitamura, K., H. Takasu, S. Hagiwara, K. Homma, J. O’Neill, D.F. Whigham, G.G. Parker and S. Kawano. 2008. Demographic Genetics of American Beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.) IV. Development of genetic variability and gene flow during succession in a Coastal Plain forest in Maryland. Plant Species Biology 23: 159-173.

Filley, T.R., M.K. McCormick, S.E. Crow, K. Szlavecz, D.F. Whigham, D.L. Taylor, C.T. Johnston, R. van den Heuvel. 2008. Comparison of the chemical alteration trajectory of Liriodendron tulipifera litter among forests with different invasive earthworm activity. JGR Biogeosciences 13, G01027, doi:10.1029/2007JG000542, 2008

Ikegami, M., S. van Hal, J.W.A. van Rhennen, D.F. Whigham, and M.J.A. Werger. 2008. Spatial division of labour of Schoenoplectus americanus (Pers.) Volk, ex Schinz & R. Keller. Plant Ecology 199: 55-64.

Ikegami, M., D.F. Whigham, and M.J.A. Werger. 2008. Optimal biomass allocation in heterogeneous environments in a clonal plant – Spatial division of labor. Ecological Modelling 213: 156-164.

Baldwin, A.H., A. Barendregt, and D.F. Whigham. 2009. Tidal freshwater wetlands - an introduction to the ecosystem. In: Barendregt, A., D.F. Whigham, and A.H. Baldwin (editors).Tidal Freshwater Wetlands. Margraf and Backhuys Publishers, Leiden and Weikersheim. Pp. 1-10.

Barendregt, A., D.F. Whigham, and A.H. Baldwin (editors). 2009. Tidal Freshwater Wetlands. Margraf and Backhuys Publishers, Leiden and Weikersheim. 320 pages.

Ikegami, M., D.F. Whigham, and M.J.A. Werger. 2009. Ramet phenology and clonal architectures of the clonal sedge Schoenoplectus americanus (Pers.)Volk. Ex Schinz & R. Keller. Plant Ecology 200: 287-301.

Kettenring, K.M. and D.F. Whigham. 2009. Seed viability and seed dormancy of non-native Phragmites australis in developed and forested watersheds of the Chesapeake Bay, USA. Aquatic Botany 91:199-204.

Leck, M.A., A.H. Baldwin, V. Thomas Parker, L. Schile, and D.F. Whigham. 2009. Plant communities of tidal freshwater wetlands of the continental USA and Canada. In: Barendregt, A., D.F. Whigham, and A.H. Baldwin (editors). Tidal Freshwater Wetlands. Margraf and Backhuys Publishers, Leiden and Weikersheim. Pp. 41-58.

Rheinhardt, R.D., M. McKenney-Easterling, M.M. Brinson, J. Masina-Rubbo, R.P. Brooks, D.F. Whigham, D. O’Brien, J.T. Hite, and B.K. Armstrong. 2009. Canopy composition and forest structure provide restoration targets for low-order riparian ecosystems. Restoration Ecology 17: 51-59.

Whigham, D.F. 2009. Primary production in tidal freshwater wetlands. In: Barendregt, A., D.F. Whigham, and A.H. Baldwin (editors). Tidal Freshwater Wetlands. Margraf and Backhuys Publishers, Leiden and Weikersheim. Pp 115-121.

Whigham, D. F. 2009. Global distribution, diversity, and human alterations of wetland resources. In: E. Maltby and T. Barker (eds.) Wetlands Handbook. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford. Pp. 43-64.

Whigham, D.F., A.H. Baldwin, and C. Swarth. 2009. Conservation of tidal freshwater wetlands in North America. In: Barendregt, A., D.F. Whigham, and A.H. Baldwin (editors). Tidal Freshwater Wetlands. Margraf and Backhuys Publishers, Leiden and Weikersheim. Pp 233-240.

Whigham, D.F., A. Barendregt, and A.H. Baldwin. 2009. Synthesis and perspectives for the future. In: Barendregt, A., D.F. Whigham, and A.H. Baldwin (editors). Tidal Freshwater Wetlands. Margraf and Backhuys Publishers, Leiden and Weikersheim. Pp. 267-270.

Whigham, D.F., A. Barendregt, and A.H. Baldwin. 2009. Tidal freshwater wetlands. In: Perillo, G.M.E., F. Wolanski, F., D. Cahoon, D, and M. Brinson (Editors). Coastal Wetlands: An Ecosystem Integrated Approach. Elsevier. Pp. 515-529.

Whigham, D.F., J.T.A. Verhoeven, V. Samarkin, and P.J. Megonigal. 2009. Responses of Avicennia germinans (Black mangrove) and the soil microbial community to nitrogen addition in a hypersaline wetland. Estuaries and Coasts 32: 926-936.

Whigham, D.F., M.C. Whigham, I.C. Feller, W. Rodriguez, and R.S. King. In press. Ecological characteristics of Batis maritima in Florida and Belize. Smithsonian Marine Science Symposium. Smithsonian Institution Press.

McCormick, M.K., D.F. Whigham, J.P. O’Neill, J.J. Becker, S. Werner, H.N. Rasmussen, T.D. Bruns, and D.L. Taylor. In press. Abundance and distribution of Corallorhiza odontorhiza reflects variations in climate and ectomycorrhizae. Ecological Monographs.

McCormick, M.K., K.M. Kettenring, H.M. Baron, and D.F. Whigham. In press. Timing, extent, and mechanisms of Phragmites australis spread in the Rhode River subestuary of the Chesapeake Bay, Maryland, USA. Wetlands

McCormick, M.K., K.M. Kettenring, H.M. Baron, and D.F. Whigham. Submitted. Spread of invasive Phragmites australis in estuaries with varying degrees of development: Genetic patterns and interpretation. Journal of Ecology.

Other Articles:

Niering, W., R. Darnell, D. Willard, R. Anderson, B. Bedford, B. Patten, M. Weller, D. Whigham, and J. Vernberg. 1978. Ecosystem diversity panel report. pp. 32-38. In: The National Wetlands Technical Council. Workshop report on research priorities for wetland ecosystem analysis. National Wetlands Technical Council. Washington, DC.

Armentano, T. V., A. de la Cruz, M. Duever, O. L. Loucks, W. Meijer, P. J. Mulholland, R. L. Tate III, and D. Whigham. 1983. Recent changes in the global carbon balance of tropical organic soils. Holcomb Research Institute. Biotic Resources Analysis Program. Report No. DOE/CH/10134-1. Indianapolis, IN. 33pp.

Whigham, D. F. 1983. Wetlands of the world: The long wetland. The Geographical Review. May, 1983. Pages 240-244. (Written by invitation).

Whigham, D. F. 1983. Structure and function of a freshwater tidal marsh ecosystem. National Geographic Society Research Reports. Volume 15. National Geographic Society. Washington, DC. pp. 725-734.

Brinson, M., H. P. Eilers, J. M. Klopatek, S. Nixon, D. Peters, R. E. Turner, D. Whigham, and R. D. Smith. 1984. Food chain panel. pp. 42-57. In: J. H. Sather and P. J. R. Stuber (Technical eds). Proceedings on the National Wetlands Values Assessment Workshop. U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Western Energy and Land Use Team. FWS/OBS-84/12. Fort Collins, CO.

Whigham, D. F. 1985. Wetlands - their natural features, uses and responses to management. In: E. C. Masteller and C. Baxter (eds). Tomorrows Oasis Today. Proceedings of the Conference on Presque Isle and the Erie waterfront. Erie County Department of Planning. Erie, PA.

van Oorschot, M., J. T. A. Verhoeven, and D. F. Whigham. 1990. Nitrogen and phosphorus cycling in a freshwater swamp in relation to organic matter and environmental conditions. Department of Plant Ecology and Evolutionary Biology. University of Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands. 24pp.

Whigham, D. F. Forest ecosystem monitoring at the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center. Permanent Plotter 3: 2-6.

Pomeroy, L. R., R. Twilley, and D. F. Whigham. 1995. External Panel Report, Nutrient Threshold Research Workshop, Feb. 1-3, 1995. South Florida Water Management District. West Palm Beach, FL.

Hopkinson, C. S., Jr., P. J. Mulholland, L. R. Pomeroy, R. R. Twilley, and D. F. Whigham. 1997. Overview and Evaluation of Everglades Nutrient Threshold Research. External Panel Report to the Florida Department of Environmental Protection. Tallahhassee, FL. 19 pp.

Brinson, M.M. L.C. Lee, W. Ainslie, R.D. Rheinhardt, G.G. Hollands, R.D. Smith, D.F. Whigham, and W.B. Nutter. 1997. Common misconceptions of the hydrogeomorphic approach to functional assessment of wetland ecosystems. scientific and technical issues. SWS Bulletin 14L 16-21.

Brinson, M.M. L.C. Lee, W. Ainslie, R.D. Rheinhardt, G.G. Hollands, R.D. Smith, D.F. Whigham, and W.B. Nutter. 1997. Clearing up misconceptions abut HGM. National Wetlands Newsletter, July-August 1997: 14-18.

Brinson, M.M., D.F. Whigham, L.C. Lee, R.D. Rheinhardt, W.B. Ainslie, G.G. Hollands, W.L. Nutter, R.D. Smith. 1998. More clarification regarding the HGM approach. SWS Bulletin 15: 7-10.

Whigham, D.F. 1998. Book Review of: The Ecology and Evolution of Clonal Plants. Plant Ecology 138: 239-242.

Whigham, D.F. 2001. Book Review of: Wetland Ecology. Conservation Biology 16: 5-7.

Day, J., D. Bosch, W. Mitsch, K. Orth, L. Shabman, C. Simenstad, W. Streever, C. Watson, J. Wells, and D. Whigham. 2004. Lessons Learned by the National Technical Review Committee for the Louisiana Coastal Area Study. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC.

New Tools Measure Chesapeake Bay Health. December 2004. Four page color brochure published by the U.S. EPA Officer of Research and Development. The brochure was based on SERC research within the ASC project. Materials and editing provided by SERC staff and coordinated by Dennis Whigham

Brooks, R.P., D.H. Wardrop, K.W. Thornton, D. Whigham, C. Hershner, M.M. Brinson and J.S. Shortle, eds. 2006. Integration of ecological and socioeconomic indicators for estuaries and watersheds of the Atlantic Slope. Final Report to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency STAR Program, Agreement R-82868401, Washington, DC. Prepared by the Atlantic Slope Consortium, University Park, PA. 96 pp. + attachments (CD).

Walker, C., R. King, D. Whigham, and S. Baird. 2007. Wetland geomorphic linkages to juvenile salmonids and macroinvertebrate communities in headwater streams of the Kenai Lowlands, Alaska. U.S. EPA Region 10 Wetlands Program Final Report, Homer, AK.

McCormick, M.K., K.M. Kettenring, H.M. Baron, and D.F. Whigham. 2008. Timing, extent, and mechanisms of Phragmites australis spread in the Rhode River estuary. In: Breitburg, D, A. Hines, T. Jordan, M. McCormick, D. Weller, and D. Whigham. 2008. Landscape patterns, nutrient discharges and biota of the Rhode River estuary and its watershed: Contributions of the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center to the Pilot Integrated Ecosystem Assessment. SERC, Edgewater, MD. Pp. 32-45.

Current and Grants Completed since 1990:
A field study of the effects of elevated CO2 concentrations upon ecosystem processes in Chesapeake Bay wetlands. U. S. Department of Energy (Consultant). 1985 - 1991.

The influence of rainfall, litter removal, and phosphorus addition on growth and nutrient cycling in a dry tropical forest. Smithsonian International Environmental Sciences Program (with J. Lynch). 1988 - 1993.

Regulation of fruit and seed production in Hibiscus moscheutos: external vs. internal control. Smithsonian Scholarly Studies Program (with Lisa Wagner). 1990-1992.

A comparative landscape study of nitrogen and phosphorus mineralization in wetlands. NATO Collaborative Research Grants Programme (with Jos Verhoeven, University of Utrecht, The Netherlands). 1990-1995.

Regeneration and growth of seedlings and saplings in a tropical dry forest. Smithsonian Institution. Scholarly Studies Program. (With J. Lynch - Smithsonian Institution, Matthew Dickinson - Florida State University, Felipe Sanchez - Cancun, Mexico, and Edgar Cabrera - CIQRO, Chetumal, Mexico). 1992-1994.

Tree growth and regeneration in Quintana Roo (Mexico - implications for sustainable forestry and biodiversity. U.S. Man and the Biosphere Program (With J. Lynch, Smithsonian Institution, and Felipe Sanchez, Quintana Roo, Mexico).. 1992-1994.

Using constructed wetlands for control of agricultural runoff. Natural Resource Conservation Service, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (with Tom Jordan, Don Weller, and David Correll). 1994-98.

Reference Wetlands - Their use in wetland functional assessment. Funding provided by the National Resources Conservation Service and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (with Mark Brinson). 1995-1997.

Regeneration of Mahogany in Mexico and Belize - A plan for sustainable forestry. U.S. Man and the Biosphere Program (with J. Lynch and M. Dickinson). 1995-1997.

Characteristics of mangrove forests ecotones at Smithsonian Marine Station at Link Port. Smithsonian Marine Station at Link Port (with I. Feller, J. O’Neill, and K. L. McKee). 1997-1998.

Characteristics of mangrove forest ecotones at Twin Cays, Belize. Smithsonian Caribbean Coral Reefs Ecosystems program. (with I. Feller, K. L. McKee, and J. O’Neill). 1997-1998.

The importance of wood in the ecology of early life history stages of terrestrial orchids. Smithsonian Institution Scholarly Studies Program (with H. Rasmussen and B. Caldwell). 1998-2000

Nanticoke Wetland Assessment Study. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (with T. Jordan and D. Weller). 1999 - 2003

Testing the Genetic Significance of Division of Labour: A Recently Identified Ecological Strategy in Clonal Plants. Andrew W. Mellon Foundation through the Smithsonian Institution program on the Evolution of Terrestrial Ecosystems. Grant to Marinus Werger (Utrecht University) in collaboration with Dennis Whigham. 1999-2003

Ecological and Socioeconomic Indicators for Integrated Assessment of Aquatic Ecosystems of the Atlantic Slope. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 28 collaborators from SERC, Penn State University, Virginia Institute of Marine Sciences, East Carolina University, FTN Associates, and Environmental Law Institute. 2001 - 2005

Temporal and Spatial Patterns of Orchid-Mycorrhizae - A Landscape and Phylogenetic Approach. Andrew W. Mellon Foundation through the Smithsonian Institution program on the Evolution of Terrestrial Ecosystems. Grant to Tom Bruns (University of California, Berkeley) in collaboration with Dennis Whigham. 2001-2004

Nitrogen mineralization and denitrification in Mangrove ecosystems. Smithsonian Marine Station at Link Port (with J. Verhoeven, I. Feller, V. Samarkin, and C. Lovelock). 2001-2002.

Orchids and their mycorrhizal fungi at Cove Point (Calvert County, Maryland). Cove Point Natural Heritage Trust. Co-PI: Melissa McCormick (SERC). 2002-2004

Orchid-fungal interactions – a system for testing hypotheses about the ecological role and distribution of mycorrhizal fungi in affecting plant distribution. National Science Foundation. Co-PIs: Melissa McCormick (SERC), Lee Taylor (University of Alaska), Timothy Filley (Purdue University). 2003-2006

The Ecology of Batis maritima in Mangrove Ecosystems with Varying Nutrient Limitations. Smithsonian Marine Sciences Network Fund. Co-PIs: Ilka Feller and Catherine Lovelock (SERC), Jos Verhoeven (University of Utrecht). 2003-2004

Orchid mycorrhizal fungi associated with nutrient-limited mangroves. Smithsonian Marine Sciences Network Research Opportunities Fund. Co-PI: Melissa McCormick (SERC). 2003-2004

Development of molecular techniques to evaluate mycorrhizal communities in forest ecosystems.. Frank Bertran Sherry Endowment. Smithsonian Institution. Co-PIs: Melissa McCormick (SERC), Lee Taylor (University of Alaska). 2004-2005.

Patterns of Nutrient Limitation in Mangrove Ecosystems Along the Indian River Lagoon. Smithsonian Marine Station. Co-PIs: Ilka Feller, Catherine Lovelock (SERC), Karen McKee (USFS). 2003-2004

Orchid mycorrhizal fungi associated with nutrient-limited mangroves. Smithsonian Marine Sciences Network Research Opportunities Fund. Co-PI: Melissa McCormick (SERC). 2004-2006.

Patterns of Nutrient Limitation in Mangrove Ecosystems Along the Indian River Lagoon. Smithsonian Marine Station. Co-PIs: Ilka Feller, Catherine Lovelock (SERC), Karen McKee (USFS). 2004-2005.

Co-PI on EPA Ecological Thresholds grant that will focus on developing models to characterize the invasion and spread of Phragmites. Primary grant to Penn State University with a subcontract to SERC. Lead PI at PSU is Denice Heller Wardrop. Co-PIs: J.P. Patil and Robert Brooks (Penn State) and Kirk Havens (Virginia Institute of Marine Sciences). 2005-2009.

Co-PI on an EPA grant to the Kachemak Bay National Estuarine Reserve program in Homer, AK. Title: the functional significance of low order stream riparian areas in supporting fish and invertebrate populations in the Kani lowlands, Alaska. Co-PI: Ryan King, Baylor University. Lead PI: Coowe Walker, Kachemak Bay National Estuarine Reserve Program. 2006-2008.

McCormick, M.K., D.F. Whigham, and J. O’Neill. U.S. National Park Service. Identify Orchid-Fungi Relationships for Isotria medeoloides. U.S. National Park Service. 2007-2009.

C. Walker (Alaska Department of Fish and Game), D.F. Whigham, R.S. King (Baylor University), and M.C. Rains (University of South Florida). EPA Region 10. Headwater Stream Wetland Settings and Shallow Ground Water Influence: Relationships to Juvenile Salmon Habitat on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. 2007-2009.

Predicting impacts of stressors at the land-water interface. T. Jordan and many collaborators from SERC and other institutions. NOAA. 2009-2013.

Linkages between surface and subsurface hydrology and ecological functioning of mangroves. Dennis Whigham, Ilka Feller, Jos Verhoeven, Riks Laanbroek, and Mark Rains. Smithsonian MSN program. 2010-2012 Pending.

Collaborative Research: Biological responses to interactions between two ecological stressors: invasive earthworms and drought. Melissa McCormick (Lead PI), Dennis Whigham, Katalin Szlavecz (Johns Hopkins). 2010-2013. Pending.

Effects of an invasive plant on ectomycorrhizal interactions. Melissa McCormick, Dennis Whigham, David Gorchov (Lead PI), and Neal Danielson (Miami University). NSF. 2010-2013. Pending.

Restore the Federally Threatened Small Whorled Pogonia in Three NPS Regions. National Park Service NRPP Threatened and Endangered Species Project TW-10-01. Dennis Whigham and Melissa McCormick. October 2010-2012.


Papers Presented:
Whigham, D. F. 1968. Vegetational patterns along an altitudinal gradient: community or continuum? Association of Southeastern Biologists. ASB Bulletin 15:59

Whigham, D. F. 1971. The ecological life history of Uvularia perfoliata L. Association of Southeastern Biologists. ASB Bulletin 18: 62.

Whigham, D. F. and R. L. Simpson. 1975. Primary production of a Delaware River freshwater tidal wetland. Ecological Society of America. Bulletin Ecological Society of America 56: 29.

Simpson, R. L. and D. F. Whigham. 1975. Soil algae standing crop in a freshwater tidal marsh. Ecological Society of America. Bulletin Ecological Society of America 56: 29.

Whigham, D. F. and R. L. Simpson. 1976. Seasonal biomass changes and decomposition of vascular plants in a Delaware River freshwater tidal marsh. Ecological Society of America. Bulletin Ecological Society of America 57: 12.

Lee, K., R. J. Natuk, R. L. Simpson, and D. F. Whigham. 1977. Field and laboratory studies of soil algae of a freshwater tidal marsh exposed to sewage effluent. Northeast Algal Symposium. Woods Hole, MA.

Lee, K., R. J. Natuk, R. L. Simpson, and D. F. Whigham. 1977. Effects of sewage on the soil algae of a freshwater tidal marsh. Annual Meeting Phycological Society of America. Santa Barbara, CA.

Sickels, F. A., R. L. Simpson, and D. F. Whigham. 1977. Decomposition of vascular plants in a Delaware River freshwater tidal marsh exposed to sewage spray irrigation. New Jersey Academy of Sciences. Bulletin New Jersey Academy Sciences 22: 41-42.

Simpson, R. L., D. F. Whigham, and F. Sickels. 1977. Decomposition of vascular plants in a Delaware River freshwater tidal marsh. Ecological Society of America. Bulletin Ecological Society of America 58: 11.

Simpson, R. L. and D. F. Whigham. 1978. The impact of treated sewage on water quality of a Delaware River freshwater tidal wetland. American Society of Limnology and Oceanography. Victoria, British Columbia, Canada.

Whigham, D. F. and R. L. Simpson. 1978. Aboveground and belowground biomass relationships of freshwater tidal wetland macrophytes. Ecological Society of America. Bulletin Ecological Society of America 50: 112.

Whigham, D. F. and M. McWethy. 1979. The reproductive ecology of Tipularia discolor (Orchidaceae). Association of Southeastern Biologists. ASB Bulletin 26: 93.

Whigham, D. F. and R. L. Simpson. 1979. Effects of sewage spray irrigation in a freshwater tidal wetland. I. Primary production and nutrient standing stocks. Annual meeting Ecological Society of America. Bulletin Ecological Society of America 60: 133.

Simpson, R. L., D. F. Whigham, and F. Sickels. 1979. The effects of sewage spray irrigation in a freshwater tidal wetland. II. Decomposition studies. Annual meeting Ecological Society of America. Bulletin Ecological Society of America 60: 133.

Whigham, D. F. 1980. Evolutionary aspects of the autecology of Tipularia discolor (Orchidaceae). Second International Congress of Systematic and Evolutionary Biology. University of British Columbia. Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

Whigham, D. F., M. McWethy, and J. O'Neill. 1980. Plant community response to physical alterations of a brackish wetland. Botany 80. Annual meeting Botanical Society of America. Miscellaneous Series 158: 127-128.

Whigham, D. F., M. McWethy, and J. O'Neill. 1980. Ecological implications of manipulating coastal wetlands for purposes of mosquito control. International Wetlands Conference. New Delhi, India.

Hull, J. C. and D. F. Whigham. 1981. Phytosociological study of six Coastal Plain Maryland freshwater wetlands. Annual meeting Ecological Society of America. Bulletin Ecological Society of America 62: 95.

Whigham, D. F. 1981. Productivity and seasonal resource allocation patterns of wetland macrophytes. XIII International Botanical Congress. Sydney, Australia. (Invited).

Whigham, D. F. and R. Tabisz. 1982. The effects of nutrient addition and competition on growth and biomass allocation in Ipomoea hederacea L. Annual meeting Ecological Society of America. Bulletin Ecological Society of America 63: 100-101.

Whigham, D. F. 1982. Vegetation in wetlands receiving sewage effluent: The importance of the seed bank. National conference of ecological considerations in wetland treatment of municipal wastewater. University of Massachusetts. (Invited).

Whigham, D. F. and J. O'Neill. 1982. Nutrient cycling by brackish intertidal wetlands in the Rhode River estuary: Role of vegetation. Atlantic Estuarine Research Society. Annapolis, MD.

Whigham, D. F. 1983. The effects of ditching on the ecology of brackish high marsh wetlands in Maryland. Estuarine Research Federation. Estuaries 6: 313.

Simpson, R. L., R. E. Good, and D. F. Whigham. 1983. Freshwater tidal wetlands: Buffers between man and the estuary. Estuarine Research Federation. Estuaries 6: 278-279.

Whigham, D. F. 1983. Wetland impact values. SCOPE conference on ecosystem dynamics in freshwater wetlands and shallow bodies of water. Tallin, Estonia, USSR. (Invited).

Whigham, D. F. 1984. Long-term population studies of the Cranefly Orchid (Tipularia discolor). Annual meeting Ecological Society of America. Bulletin Ecological Society of America 65: 90.

Whigham, D. F. 1984. Water quality studies of six bogs on the Inner Coastal Plain of Maryland. Atlantic White Cedar symposium. Woods Hole, MA. (Invited).

Hull, J. C. and D. F. Whigham. 1984. Atlantic white cedar in the Maryland Inner Coastal Plain and Delmarva Peninsula. Atlantic White Cedar symposium. Woods Hole, MA. (Invited).

Jordan, T. E. and D. F. Whigham. 1985. The effects of litter and nutrients on production and decomposition in a brackish Typha angustifolia marsh. Annual meeting Ecological Society of America. Bulletin Ecological Society of America 66: 203-204.

Whigham, D. F. and T. E. Jordan. 1985. The importance of dead shoots to the productivity of Typha angustifolia in brackish wetlands. Annual meeting Ecological Society of America. Bulletin Ecological Society of America 66: 292.

Whigham, D. F., C. Chitterling, B. Palmer, and J. O'Neill. 1986. Modification of runoff from upland watersheds - The influence of a diverse riparian ecosystem. Symposium on watershed research perspective. Smithsonian Institution, Edgewater, MD.

Whigham, D. F., P. Zugasty, E. Cabrera, J. O'Neill, and E. Ley. 1986. Litter and phosphorus manipulations in a semi-deciduous tropical forest in the Yucatan of Mexico. International Congress of Ecology. Syracuse, NY.

Whigham, D. F., B. Palmer, C. Chitterling, and J. O'Neill. 1987. The impact of freshwater wetlands on water quality - A landscape perspective. U. S. Environmental Protection Agency workshop on cumulative impacts on freshwater wetlands. Corvallis, OR. (Invited).

Whigham, D. F., B. Palmer, J. O'Neill, and D. Higman. 1987. Floodplains as landscape units - The impacts of hydrologic alterations. Annual meeting Society of Wetland Scientists. Seattle, WA. (Invited).

Whigham, D. F., T. E. Jordan, H. McKellar, and J. Miklas. 1987 Biomass and resource allocation of Typha angustifolia: The effects of within and between year variations in salinity. Annual meeting Society of Wetland Scientists. Seattle, WA.

Whigham, D. F., J. O'Neill, and D. Higman. 1987. Population dynamics of woodland species - species and temporal comparisons. International symposium on vegetational structure. University of Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Whigham, D. F. 1987. The effect of herbivory on the growth and reproduction of a woodland orchid (Tipularia discolor). XIV International Botanical Congress. Berlin, West Germany.

Whigham, D. F. 1987. Transport and processing of nutrients in a coastal plain watershed-estuarine system. Department of Plant Ecology. University of Utrecht. The Netherlands.

Whigham, D. F. 1987. The effects of litter manipulations and phosphorus additions on a dry tropical forest. Department of Plant Ecology. University of Utrecht. The Netherlands.

Holland, M., B. Gopal, and D. F. Whigham. 1988. Wetland ecotones. International workshop on land/inland water ecotones. Sopron, Hungary.

Whigham, D. F. 1988. The importance of wetlands in controlling the movement of nutrients and sediment - A landscape perspective. Institute of Hydrobotany. Trebon, Czechoslovakia.

Whigham, D. F. 1988. Factors controlling production of Typha angustifolia in a brackish wetland. Department of Plant Ecology. University of Utrecht. The Netherlands.

Whigham, D. F. 1988. Wetlands as important components of landscapes. Research Institute for Nature Management. Leersum, The Netherlands.

Curtis, P. S., B. G. Drake, P. W. Leadley, W. Arp, and D. Whigham. 1988. Ecosystem responses to a doubling in atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Annual meeting Ecological Society of America. Bulletin Ecological Society of America 69: 112.

Snow, A. A. and D. F. Whigham. 1988. The cost of reproduction in a "pollen-limited" woodland orchid (Tipularia discolor). Annual meeting Ecological Society of America. Bulletin Ecological Society of America 69: 302.

Whigham, D. F. 1988. The potential role of woody vines in the dynamics of vegetation. National Capital Region Science Conference. National Park Service. Thurmont, Maryland. (Invited)

Whigham, D. F. 1988. Wetlands as landscape components - a case study of a floodplain ecosystem. Rutgers University. (Invited)

Whigham, D. F. 1988. Growth and nutrient dynamics. Mini-symposium: Climate change and vegetation: The effect of elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide on a Chesapeake Bay salt marsh ecosystem. Atlantic Estuarine Research Society. Solomons, MD.

Whigham, D. F. 1989. Ecological studies of a dry tropical forest in the Yucatan of Mexico. Rutgers University. (Invited)

Whigham, D. F. 1989. Tropical agriculture and deforestation - A case study in the Yucatan of Mexico. Environmental Issues
Seminar. Bard College. (Invited)

Curtis, P. S., B. G. Drake, D. F. Whigham, L. M. Balduman, and M. L. Sutton. 1989. Belowground responses of marsh plants to elevated atmospheric CO2. Annual meeting Ecological Society of America. Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America 70: 92.

Drake, B. G., P. W. Leadley, W. J. Arp, P. S. Curtis, and D. F. Whigham. 1989. The effects of two years of elevated CO2 treatment on a Chesapeake Bay wetland ecosystem. Annual meeting Ecological Society of America. Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America 70: 101.

Olmted, I, D. F. Whigham, E. Cabrera Cano, and J. F. Lynch. 1989. The impact of Hurricane Gilbert on a dry tropical forest in the peninsula of Yucatan, Mexico. Annual meeting Ecological Society of America. Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America 70: 218.

O'Neill, J. P. and D. F. Whigham. 1989. Reproductive and growth responses of a woodland herb, Cynoglossum virginianum (Boraginaceae), to the creation of a tree gap. Annual meeting Ecological Society of America. Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America 70: 219.

Whigham, D. F., P. Zugasty Towle, E. Cabrera Cano, and J. P. O'Neill. 1989. The effect of annual variation in precipitation on growth and litter production in a tropical dry forest in the peninsula of Yucatan, Mexico. Annual meeting Ecological Society of America. Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America 70: 296.

Whigham, D. F. 1989. Ecological, agricultural, and climatological interactions in a dry tropical forest in the Yucatan of Mexico. Department of Biology, University of Osnabruck, West Germany. (Invited)

Whigham, D. F. 1989. Ecological processes in a dry tropical forest in the Yucatan of Mexico. Ohio Wesleyan University, Delaware, Ohio.

Drake, B. G., W. J. Arp, P. S. Curtis, P. W. Leadley, and D. F. Whigham. 1989. Global change and vegetation: The long term effect of elevated CO2 on Chesapeake Bay wetlands. International Estuarine Research Conference, Baltimore, MD.

Whigham, D. F. and R. L. Simpson. 1990. Annual variations in biomass production: A comparison of tidal freshwater and tidal brackish wetlands. Virginia Academy of Sciences. A symposium. George Mason University. Fairfax, VA. (Invited).

Whigham, D. F. 1990. the distribution and importance of vines in Coastal Plain forests. ASB Bulletin 37: 101.

Whigham, D. F. and J. O'Neill. 1990. The dynamics of flowering and fruit production in two eastern N. American terrestrial orchids, Tipularia discolor and Liparis lilifolia. Conference on the population biology of orchid species. 18-22 June, 1990. South Limburg, The Netherlands.

Whigham, D. F. 1990. Population ecology of a winter-green orchid, Tipularia discolor. Symposium: The ecology of terrestrial orchids. Annual meeting Botanical Society of America, Richmond, VA. (Invited). Supplement American Journal of Botany 77: 47.

Wagner, L. K. and D. F. Whigham. 1990. Variable set in Hibiscus moscheutos. Annual meeting Botanical Society of America. Richmond, VA. Supplement American Journal of Botany 77: 64.

Zimmerman, J. K. and D. F. Whigham. 1990. Ecological role of carbohydrate storage in subterranean corms of the orchid Tipularia discolor. Annual meeting Ecological Society of America. Snowbird, Utah. Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America 71: 379.

Dillenburg, L. R., A. H. Teramura, D. F. Whigham, and I. N. Forseth. 1990. An eco-physiological approach toward understanding competition between temperate forest vine and tree species. Annual meeting Ecological Society of America. Snowbird, Utah. Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America 71: 139.

Whigham, D. F. and E. C. Cano. 1990. Seedling survival and growth beneath parents: the case of Myrcianthes fragens (Myrtaceae) in a Yucatan dry tropical forest.. Ecological Society of America. Snowbird, Utah. Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America 71: 366.

Whigham, D. F. 1990. Wetland and riparian ecotones in landscape dynamics: a workshop on applying theory, data, and methods. Biogeochemistry. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. September (Invited).

Whigham, D. F. 1990. Wetlands and water quality. Oregon State University. Corvallis, Oregon. November. (Invited).

Whigham, D. F. 1990. What makes tropical dry forests tick? Results from long-term studies in the Yucatan of Mexico. Iowa State University. Ames, Iowa. November, 1990. (Invited).

Whigham, D. F. 1990. Wetlands and water quality functions. Metropolitan Council of Governments. Washington, DC. December, 1990. (Invited).

Whigham, D. F. 1991. Growth and mortality of Fagus grandifolia seedlings within and outside of tree gaps. ASB Bulletin 38: 102.
Zimmerman, J. K. and D. F. Whigham. 1991. Ecological roles of carbohydrate storage in subterranean corms of the orchid Tipularia discolor. ASB Bulletin 38: 104.

Zimmerman, J. K. and D. F. Whigham. 1991. Functional ecology of underground carbohydrate storage in the orchid Tipularia discolor. Bulletin Ecological Society of America 72: 298-299.

Dillenburg, L. R., D. F. Whigham, A. H. Teramura, and I. N. Forseth. 1991. Changes in canopy architecture in sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) interacting with vines (Lonicera japonica and Parthenocissus quinquefolia). Bulletin Ecological Society of America 72: 100.

Whigham, D. F., I. Olmsted, E. Cabrera, and M. Harmon. 1991. Recovery of a dry tropical forest (Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico) from hurricane damage. Bulletin Ecological Society of America 72: 286.

Wagner, L. K. and D. F. Whigham 1991. Resource limitations of fruit and seed set in Hibiscus moscheutos. Supplement American Journal of Botany 78: 76.

Spira, T. P., A. A. Snow, D. F. Whigham, and J. Leak. 1991. Flower visitation, pollen deposition, and pollen tube competition in Hibiscus moscheutos (Malvaceae). Supplement American Journal of Botany 78: 73.

Whigham, D. F. 1991. The diversity of wetlands- how does it all fit together. Presented at the symposium: Wetland Plants: Diversity, Function, and Importance. Sponsored by The Philadelphia Botanical Club Centennial Program and The Academy of Natural Sciences. Kennett Square, PA. November, 1991. (Invited).

Whigham, D. F. 1991. Testimony to the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology of the U. S. House of Representatives. Testimony of wetland delineation regulations. November 12, 1991. (Invited)

Whigham, D. F. 1992. Impacts of stormwater on wetland water quality. U.S. EPA Wetlands/Stormwater Workshop. Clearwater Beach, Florida. January, 1992. (Invited).

Whigham, D. F. 1992. Ecological comparisons of a hydrologically modified floodplain. Saturated Forested Wetlands in the Mid-Atlantic Region: The State of the Science. Sponsored by the U.S. EPA, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Corps of Engineers, U.S. Forest Service, and U.S.D.A. Soil Conservation Service. Annapolis, Maryland. January, 1992. (Invited).

Whigham, D. F. and J. O'Neill. 1992. Litter dynamics in a hydrologically modified floodplain wetland. Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America 73: 386.

Olmsted, I. C. and D. Whigham. 1992. Phenology of Manilkara zapota (L.) Van Royer in dry tropical forest on the Yucatan Peninsula after disruptive disturbance. Annual Meeting of the Association of Tropical Biology. Honolulu, Hawaii.

Verhoeven, J. T. A. and D. F. Whigham. 1992. Comparative study of nutrient cycling in wetlands in Maryland and The Netherlands. IV International Wetlands Conference. Columbus, Ohio. (Invited).

Brinson, M. M., W. Kruczynski, L. C. Lee, W. L. Nutter, R. D. Smith, and D. F. Whigham. 1992. A hydrogeomorphic approach for assessing functions of wetlands. IV International Wetlands Conference. Columbus, Ohio. (Invited).

Whigham, D. F. 1992. Tropical dry forests - ecosystem dynamics and conservation. Villanova University, Villanova, PA. (Invited)

Whigham, D. F. 1993. Tropical dry forests: responses to small and large-scale climatological events. Joseph W. Jones Ecological Research Center. Newton, GA. (Invited)

Cipollini, M. L., D. Wallace-Senft, and D. Whigham. 1993. Population structure and dynamics in response to gap formation in the dioecious shrub Lindera benzoin: a mixed population/forest dynamics matrix model. Annual meeting Ecological Society of America. Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America 74: 91.

Whigham, D. F. 1993. The belowground world of woodland plants. Spring Wildflower Symposium. Wintergreen Resort, Wintergreen, VA. (Invited)

Whigham, D. F. 1993. What should be monitored at wetland mitigation sites. Mid-Atlantic Wetland Compensatory Mitigation Workshop. Annapolis, MD. (Invited)

Whigham, D. F. and J. O'Neill. 1993. A decade of vegetation dynamics in Maryland brackish wetlands ditched for mosquito control. Annual Meeting of the Society of Wetland Scientists. Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.

Whigham, D. F., J. O'Neill, and M. L. Cipollini. 1993. The role of tree gaps in maintaining the population structure of a woodland herb. Cynoglossum virginianum. International Symposium on "Maintenance Mechanism and Diversity of Plant Species Populations". Kyoto, Japan. (Invited)

Olmsted, I. and D. Whigham. 1993. Fenologia de la selva mediana subperennifolia en Quintana Roo despues de una severa perturbacion. Annual meeting of the Botanical Society of Mexico.

Thompson, G. B., B. G. Drake, and D. F. Whigham. 1994. Decomposition of litter from C3 and C4 marsh communities was reduced by long-term exposure to elevated atmospheric CO2 in open top chambers in the field. Annual Meeting of the Ecological Society of America. August 7-11, Knoxville, Tennessee. Supplement to the Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America 75: 228-229.

Whigham, D. F. 1994. Dry tropical forest responses to variation in precipitation, phosphorus addition and disturbance. pp. 149. In. Tallis, J. H., H. J. Norman, and R. A. Benton. Proceedings of the VI International Congress of Ecology. Manchester, United Kingdom. August.

Whigham, D. F. 1995. A new approach to functional assessment of riverine wetlands. Invited seminar at the U.S. National Biological Service, Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. Laurel, Maryland. February.

Whigham, D. F. 1995. A national model for the performing functional assessment of wetlands. Invited seminar at George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia. April.

Wijesinghe, D. K. and D. F. Whigham. 1995. The dynamics of clonal growth in different light environments of the forest understorey perennial Uvularia perfoliata L., (Liliaceae). 4th International Workshop on Clonal Plants. Visegrad, Hungary. April.

Whigham, D. F. and J. F. Lynch. 1995. Plant and animal responses to hurricane disturbance in a Mexican dry tropical forest. International Symposium: Measuring and Monitoring forest Biological Diversity: The International network of Biodiversity Plots. May. Washington, DC.

Whigham, D. F. 1995. Role of wetlands, ponds, and shallow lakes in improving water quality. Invited lecture at a conference on "Animal Wastes and the Land-Water Interface". University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas. July. (Invited)

Whigham, D. F. and J. O'Neill. 1995. Cataclysmic versus slow death of canopy trees: Does it matter in the understory. Annual meeting Ecological Society of America. Snowbird, Utah. August.

Kudoh, H. and D. F. Whigham. 1995. Genetic structure and gene flow within and between populations of the wetland macrophyte Hibiscus moscheutos (Malvaceae). Annual meeting of the Ecological Society of America. Snowbird, Utah. August.

Whigham, D.F. 1995. Wetland Functional Assessments: State of the Science. Wetlands Workshop, College of William and Mary. Williamsburg, VA. October.

Whigham, D.F. 1995. The HGM approach: Classification, scaling assessment models to reference domain, and application. Symposium on Procedures for Assessing Wetland Function. Arlington, VA. November.

Whigham, D.F. 1996. Stream characterization in the application of HGM. Stream Channel Stability Research and Monitoring Information Exchange. Maryland Department of Natural Resources. Annapolis, MD. January. (Invited).

Whigham, D.F. 1996. Constructed wetlands in agricultural landscapes: vegetation development and nutrient cycling. Manta Noon Seminar Series. Maryland Department of natural Resources. Annapolis, MD. April (Invited)

Whigham, D.F., T.E. Jordan, D.L. Correll, and D.E. Weller. 1996. The consequences of hydrologic alterations on water quality parameters in a forested floodplain. Annual meeting Association of Southeastern Biologists. Statesboro, GA. April. (Invited).

Whigham, D.F. 1996. Concepts of reference and examples. Wetland Assessment: Implementing the HGM Methodology. Association of State Wetland Managers. April. Washington, DC. (Invited).

Whigham, D.F. 1996. Vegetation dynamics of freshwater tidal wetlands: Current knowledge and predictions for the future. Keynote Address. Wetland Plants of the Mid-Atlantic States: Distribution, Ecology, and Conservation. Jug Bay Wetlands Sanctuary. Wrighton, MD (Invited)

Whigham, D.F. 1996. Wetlands: Structure and function in a landscape context. Ecosystem Management Workshop. Maryland Department of Natural Resources. New Germany, MD (Invited)

Whigham, D.F., L.C. Lee, M.M. Brinson, and W.L. Nutter. 1996. A field test of the hydrogeomorphic (HGM) functional assessment methodology for riverine wetlands on 1st-3rd order streams on the Coastal Plain of Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia. Society of Wetland Scientists 17th Annual Meeting. Kansas City, MO

Feller, I.C., D.F. Whigham, J.P. O’Neill, and K.L. McKee. 1996. Within-stand nutrient cycling in tropical forested wetlands. Symposium on: Within Stand Nutrient Cycling in Wetland Ecosystems. Vth INTECOL Wetlands Conference. Perth, Australia

Aerts, R., J.T.A. Verhoeven, and D.F. Whigham. 1996. Within-stand nutrient cycling in temperate wetlands. Symposium on: Within Stand Nutrient Cycling in Wetland Ecosystems. Vth INTECOL Wetlands Conference. Perth, Australia.

Whigham, D.F. and D. Eckels. 1996. The hydrogeomorphic method for wetlands classification and its application to Coastal Plain stream systems. Maryland Department of Natural Resources. MANTA Seminar Series. Annapolis, MD.

Whigham, D. F. and W. Nutter. 1997. Natural variation and data requirements, scaling to reference standards. Wetlands 97: The Future of Wetland Assessment. Annapolis, MD.

Whigham, D. F., M. M. Brinson, L. C. Lee, G. Hollands, and W. Nutter. 1997. Development of a National HGM Reference Guidebook. Wetlands 97: The Future of Wetland Assessment. Annapolis, MD.

Lee, L. C., M. B. Brinson, D. Dewald, M. Gilbert, G. Hollands, W. J. Kleindl, W. L. Nutter, M. C. Rains, D. Whigham, and M. Whited. 1997. Development of a Draft Guidebook to Functional Assessments of the Prairie Pothole Region, North Dakota, USA. Wetlands 97: The Future of Wetland Assessment. Annapolis, MD.

Lee, L. C., M. B. Brinson, T. Brock, K. A. Coshow, D. D. Amore, K. L. Fetherston, G. Hollands, P. Huberth, J. A. Mason, R. Noll, W. L. Nutter, J. Powell, R. Thompson, and D. Whigham. 1997. Development of a Draft Regional Guidebook for HGM Functional Assessments in riverine Waters/Wetlands and Slope Wetlands in Southeast Alaska. Wetlands 97: The Future of Wetland Assessment. Annapolis, MD.

Whigham, D. F. 1997. Using permanent plots to quantify impacts of natural and anthropogenic activities on Yucatan dry tropical forests. Annual meeting of the Ecological Society of America. Albuquerque, NM

Rains, M. C., M. B. Brinson, M. Clark, K. A. Coshow, J. Hall, G. Hollands, W. J. Kleindl, D. LaPlant, L. C. Lee, W. L. Nutter, R. Post, J. Powell, and D. Whigham. 1997. Development of a Draft Guidebook for the application of HGM Functional Assessments in Precipitation-Driven Wetlands on Discontinuous Permafrost in Interior Alaska. PresenteWetlands 97: The Future of Wetland Assessment. Annapolis, MD.

Whigham, D.F. 1998. Its not easy being a woodland herb. Harvard Forest, Harvard University, Petersham, MA.

Whigham, D.F. 1998. Long-term patterns of growth and response to disturbance in Yucatan dry tropical forest. Harvard Forest, Harvard University, Petersham, MA.

Whigham, D.F. 1998. Hydrogeomorphic functional assessment of wetlands. Harvard Forest, Harvard University, Petersham, MA.

Whigham, D.F. 1998. The timing and intensity of herbivory - its influence on the performance of clonal woodland herbs. Plant Species Biology Symposium. Zao, Japan. (Invited)

Whigham, D.F. 1998. Mires of Japan. Harvard Forest, Peterhsham, MA.
Whigham, D.F., L. Lee, M. Brinson, W. Nutter, and G. Hollands. 1998. Reference systems and their use in the Hydrogeomorphic approach (HGM) to wetland assessment. Annual meeting of the Society of Wetland Scientists. Anchorage, AK. June.

Hollands, G.G., M.C. Rains, M.M. Brinson, M. Clark, K.A. Coshow, W;.L. Kleindl, D. LaPlant, L.C. Lee, W.L. Nutter, R. Post, J.
Powell, T. Rockwell, and D.F. Whigham. HGM wetland classification of the interior of Alaska. Annual meeting of the Society of Wetland Scientists. Anchorage, AK. June.

Lee, L.C., D.F. Whigham, M.M. Brinson, G.G. Hollands, and W.L. Nutter. 1998. Examples of the utility of HGM reference systems: Lessons from the field. Selecting and Using Wetlands Reference Sites. Institute of Ecosystems Studies, Millbrook, New York. May. (Invited)

Whigham, D.F. 1998. Wetland issues related to managing water quality and biodiversity in landscapes. University of Utrecht. Utrecht, The Netherlands. April. (Invited)

Feller, I., D.F. Whigham, K. McKee, and J. O’Neill. 1998. Effects of nutrient availability on growth of red mangrove and within-stand nutrient cycling across mangrove forest ecotones. Annual meeting of the Ecological Society of America. Baltimore, MD. August.

Shimamura, R., H. Kudo, N. Kachi, and D. Whigham. 1998. Effects of water-resistance of seed coat on dispersal and germination in Hibiscus moscheutos. Annual meeting of the Ecological Society of America. Baltimore, MD. August.

Whigham, D.F. 1998. Introduction to the Chesapeake Bay: Ecology and Management issues. Symposium (The Chesapeake Bay ecosystem: Historical and current perspectives on ecological processes and issues). Annual meeting of the Ecological Society of America. Baltimore, MD. August.

Jordan, T.E., D.E. Weller, D.L. Correll, Z. Jun Liu, and D.F. Whigham. Discharges of nutrients from the Chesapeake Bay watershed. Symposium (The Chesapeake Bay ecosystem: Historical and current perspectives on ecological processes and issues). Annual meeting of the Ecological Society of America. Baltimore, MD. August.

Whigham, D.F. 1998. The ecological consequences of wetland preservation compared to restoration and conservation. Managing for biodiversity. Incentives for the protection of nature. Savannah, GA. November (Invited)

Whigham, D.F. 1998. An ecological approach to assessing wetland functions. Wageningen Agricultural University, Wageningen, The Netherlands. September (Invited).

Whigham, D.F. 1998. Linking ecosystems to landscapes: a challenge for ecologists. Inaugural address as Professor of Landscape Ecology, Utrecht University, The Netherlands. (October).

Whigham, D.F. 1999. Drier end wetlands. Wetlands and climate change: Scientific knowledge and management options. National Invitational Workshop. Laurel, MD. (February).

Whigham, D.F., M. Pittek, K. Hauser, T. Jordan, and A. Pepin. 1999. Biomass and nutrient dynamics in restored depressional wetlands on Maryland’s Eastern Shore. Annual Meeting of Society of Wetland Scientists. Norfolk, VA (June).

Pepin, A. and D.F. Whigham. 1999. The relative importance of hydrology and substrate in the vegetation dynamics of restored freshwater wetlands. Annual Meeting of Society of Wetland Scientists. Norfolk, VA (June).

O’Neill, J.P., D.F. Whigham, C. Smith, H.R. Rasmussen, T. Daniell, and B.A. Caldwell. 1999. Ecological interactions between Goodyera pubescens (Orchidaceae) and its fungal symbionts - seed germination and seedling development. Annual Meeting of the Ecological Society of America. Spokane, WA. (August)

Whigham, D.F. 1999. The use of reference wetlands in development of methods for wetland functional assessment. Utrecht University, The Netherlands. November (Invited).

Whigham, D.F. 1999. HGM variables and functions. Workshop on Wetland Assessment. A Global Perspective. Tsukuba, Japan. November (Invited).

Whigham, D.F. 1999. Wetland conservation and restoration in the US. Symposium: Protecting Wetland Ecosystems and Wetland Biodiversity – A Global Perspective. Osaka, Japan. November (Invited).

Whigham, D.F. 2000. Terrestrial orchids and their mycorrhizal associates – critical partners of early life history stages. Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ. February (Invited).

Whigham, D.F. 2000. Fifteen years of measuring forest dynamics in the Yucatan Peninsula – responses to drought, hurricane, and logging. University of California at Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA. March (Invited).

Whigham, D., T. Jordan, D. Weller, M. Pittek, and V. Samarkin. 2000. Science, HGM, and wetlands: Characterizing non-tidal wetlands in an Atlantic Coastal Plain watershed. Millennium Wetland Event. Quebec, Canada. Symposium on The Hydrogeomorphic (HGM) Approach to Wetland Functional Assessment: Introduction, Current Status, and Application. August (Invited).

Feller, I.C., D.F. Whigham, K.L. Mckee, K. Lovelock, and J.P. O’Neill. 2000. Decomposition and nutrient limitations in tropical mangroves. Millenium Wetland Event, Quebec, Canada. Symposium on Global to small scale studies of decomposition and nutrient dynamics in wetlands August (Invited).

McCormick, M., J. O’Neill, and D.F. Whigham. 2000. Specialization and species distribution in orchid-fungal symbioses. Annual Meeting Ecological Society of America. Snowbird, Utah. August.

Whigham, D.F. Clonal plant populations as meta-populations: the dynamics of ramets and genets in clonal plant populations. Clone 2000. Current Progress and Developments in Clonal Plant Research. International Workshop. Obergurgl, Austria. (Invited).

Whigham, D.F., I. Olmsted, E. Cabrera Cano and A.B. Curtis. 2001. Impacts of hurricanes on the forests of Quintana Roo, Yucatán Península, México. Lowland Maya Area: Three Millennia at the Human-Wildland Interface. 21st Symposium in Plant Biology. University of California, Riverside. Riverside, CA (Invited)

Whigham, D.F. 2001. From Ruffsdale to the world: Explorations and experiences from a career in ecology. A forum on career opportunities in the Life Sciences. Rutgers University Biology Club. Rutgers University. (Invited).

Whigham, D.F., J. O'Neill, M. McCormick, C. Smith, H. Rasmussen, B. Caldwell, and T. Daniell. 2001. Interactions between decomposing wood, mycorrhiza, and terrestrial orchid seeds and protocorms. International Orchid Workshop, Underlying Mechanisms of Trends and Fluctuations in Terrestrial Orchid Populations. České Budêjovice, Czech Republic.

Whigham, D.F. and J. O'Neill. 2001. Responses to slow versus cataclysmic tree death - growth of neighbors and seedling establishment. Annual meeting of Ecological Society of America, Madison, Wisconsin.

McCormick, M.K., D.F. Whigham, and J.P. O'Neill. 2001. Diversity and species distribution in orchid-fungal symbioses. International Mycorrhiza Congress. Adelaide, Australia.

Whigham, D.F., T.E. Jordan, D.E. Weller, M. Kentula, D. Stevens, R. Sumner, A. Jacobs. 2001. Assessment of Non-Tidal Wetlands in the Nanticoke River, Chesapeake Bay Watershed. University of Maryland Center for Environmental and Estuarine
Studies. Appalachian Ecology Laboratory, Frostburg, MD (Invited).Whigham, D.F. 2001. Assessment of non-tidal wetlands in the Nanticoke River, Maryland: a top-down and bottom-up view. The Fourth Annual Wetlands Regulatory Workshop. Atlantic City, NJ (Invited).

Whigham, D.F. 2002. Scaling-up from assessment of individual wetlands to the watershed – ongoing research in the Nanticoke River watershed. George Washington University. Washington, DC (Invited)

Whigham, D.F. 2002. Linking the understory to the canopy. Native Plant Symposium. U.S. National Arboretum. Washington, DC (Invited)

Whigham, D.F., D.E. Weller, and T.E. Jordan. 2002. Watersheds, wetlands, and water quality. 2002 ASA-CSSA-SSSA Annual Meetings. Indianapolis, IN (Invited)

Whigham, D.F. and T.E. Jordan. 2002. Water quality. Isolated Wetlands Symposium. Annual Meeting of Society of Wetlands Scientists. Lake Placid, NY (Invited).

Whigham, D.F. 2002. Assessing ecological conditions of wetlands at the catchment scale. Integration of Scales in Landscape Ecology. Utrecht University. Utrecht, The Netherlands (Invited).

Whigham, D.F., A.J. Deller, D.E. Weller, and T.E. Jordan. 2002. Combining HGM, EMAP and GIS techniques to assess ecological conditions of two wetland classes (flats, depressions) at the watershed scale - Nanticoke River, Maryland. Annual Meeting of Society of Wetlands Scientists. Lake Placid, NY.

McCormick, M. K., D. Sloan, K. O’Malley, D. F. Whigham, and J. P. O’Neill. 2002. Orchid mycorrhizal diversity and tolerance of spatial and temporal habitat variation. Annual Meeting of Ecological Society of America, Tucson, AZ.

Nohara, S, J.T.A. Verhoeven, and D.F. Whigham. 2002. Comparative study of nitrogen and phosphorus cycling in Japanese peatlands. Nanjing International Wetlands Symposium. Wetland Restoration and Management: Addressing Asian Issues Through International Collaboration. Nanjing, China.

Whigham, D. F. 2002. Orchid ecology. 2002 Native Plant Conference. Creating a Natural Landscape. Phipps Conservatory and Botanical Garden. Pittsburgh, PA. (Invited).

Whigham, D.F., T.E. Jordan, and D.E Weller. 2002. Watersheds, wetlands, and water quality. 2002 Annual meeting of the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. Indianapolis, IN. (Invited)

Whigham, D. F. 2003. For every action a reaction: Establishment processes of woodland herbs. Lectures presented at Connecticut College and Villanova University in The 13th Annual Symposium on New Directions in the American Landscape. Symposium title: Vegetation and innovation: meadows, woods and water. (Invited)

Hosaka, N, J. F. Stuefer and D.F. Whigham. 2003. The ecological significance of clonal growth in an understory tree (Pawpaw – Asimina triloba). Association of Southeastern Biologists Annual Meeting. Washington, DC. Southeastern Biology 50 (2): 113.

Innis, A., I. Forseth, and D.F. Whigham. 2003. Comparative ecology of a non-native, invasive perennial, Rubus phoenicolasius, and a weedy, native congener, Rubus argutus. Annual meeting Association of Southeastern Biologists. Washington, DC. Southeastern Biology 50 (2): 182.

Whigham, D.F. 2004. Orchids and their mycorrhizal partners: challenges for understanding plant-fungal interactions at multiple scales. Lecture at Nijmegen University. Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Whigham, D.F. 2004. Terrestrial orchids in your neighborhood – more than just pretty flowers. Lecture in the SERC Evening Lecture Series for 2004.

Innis, A.F., I.N. Forseth, and D.F. Whigham. 2004. Comparative ecology of the invasive wine raspberry (Rubus phoenicolasius) and the native blackberry (Rubus argutus) in an eastern successional forest. 55th Annual Meeting of the American Institute of Biological Sciences. March. Washington, DC.

Whigham, D.F. 2005. Integrating wetland measuring and monitoring. Developing “Outcome-based” wetland protection and restoration programs; Measuring and monitoring success. State/Federal Technical Workshop. Sponsored by the Association of State Wetland Managers, International Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies, NOAA, US EPA, and US NRCS. March, Washington, DC. (Invited).

Whigham, D.F. 2004. Wetland lessons learned, ignored and avoided. Keynote address. Using Science to Protect Wetlands: Making Science Available to All. Annual Symposium of the Friends for the Marsh. Rider University, Trenton, NJ. May. (Invited)

Whigham, D.F., J.P. O’Neill, M.K. McCormick, H.N. Rasmussen, and B.A. Caldwell. 2004. Germination of terrestrial orchid seeds – a summary of past findings, results from ongoing experiments and future needs. International Orchid Workshop. Haapsalu, Estonia. June.

Whigham, D.F., A.D. Jacobs, and D.E. Weller. 2004. Using the hydrogeomorphic (HGM) approach to assess wetlands at the watershed scale. 7th INTECOL International Wetlands Conference. Utrecht, The Netherlands. July

Verhoeven, J.T.A., D.F. Whigham and P.J. Megonigal. 2004. Nitrogen dynamics in an N limited dwarf mangrove wetland, Indian River, Florida. Symposium on Microbial and Nutrient Controls on the Biocomplexity and Emergent Properties of Mangrove Ecosystems 7th INTECOL International Wetlands Conference. Utrecht, The Netherlands. July (Invited)

Baldwin, A.H., M.A. Leck and D.F. Whigham. 2004. Tidal freshwater wetlands of the U.S. Atlantic Coast: plant ecology and restoration. Tidal freshwater symposium. 7th INTECOL International Wetlands Conference. Utrecht, The Netherlands. July.

M. McCormick, S. Pimm, and D.F. Whigham. 2004. Phylogenetic relationships and fungal associations of nine species of Platanthera (Orchidaceae). Annual meeting of the Ecological Society of America. Portland, OR.

McCormick, M, D, D.F. Whigham and J.P. O’Neill. 2004. Orchid-fungal fidelity: a marriage meant to last? New Perspectives on the Systematics and Ecology of Orchids. University of Toulouse, Toulouse, France. November. (Invited)

Whigham, D.F. 2004. Scale: The ecological importance of knowing the linkages between processes and patterns at small and large scales. Lecture presented at meeting of Spa Creek Watershed Association and Jug Bay Wetlands Sanctuary in October. (Invited).

Whigham, D.F., R. King, W. DeLuca, D. Bilkovic, P. Marra, A. Hines, D. Weller, M. Baker, and C. Hershner. 2004. Indicators of linkages between watersheds and shallow estuarine habitats. Spa Creek Conservancy, Annapolis, MD (Invited)

King, R. S. and D. F. Whigham. 2004.. Linking watershed land use to ecological indicators in streams and subestuaries of Chesapeake Bay. Maryland Stream Monitoring Roundtable Meeting, Baltimore, Maryland. (Invited).

King, R. S., and D. F. Whigham. 2004. Linking watershed land use to ecological indicators in streams and subestuaries of Chesapeake Bay. Versar, Inc., Columbia, Maryland. (Invited).

King, R.S., M.E. Baker, D.F. Whigham, D.E. Weller, P.F. Kazyak, M.K. Hurd. Land-use thresholds and stream macroinvertebrate assemblages: influences of physiography, watershed size, and spatial arrangement. 52nd Annual Meeting of the North American Benthological Society, Vancouver, BC, Canada. June.

Whigham, D.F. 2005. Watershed-estuarine linkages at a U.S.D.A. One-day Continuing Education Course at SERC..

Baker, M.E., R.S. King, D.F. Whigham, D.E. Weller, W.V. DeLuca, P.P. Marra, A.H. Hines, and T.E. Jordan. 2005. Indicators of Linkages Between Watersheds and Shallow Estuarine Habitats. Chesapeake Bay Program, Annapolis, MD. (Invited).

Baker, M., R. King, D. Whigham, D. Weller, W. DeLuca, P. Marra, A. Hines, and T. Jordan. 2005. Identifying linkages between watersheds, wetlands, and shallow sub-estuaries. Public Presentation to the South River Federation, Chesapeake Bay Foundation Headquarters, Annapolis, MD.

King, R. S., J. R. Beaman, D. F. Whigham, A.H. Hines, M.E. Baker, and D.E. Weller. 2005. Urbanization of estuarine watersheds is strongly linked to elevated PCBs in white perch. 4th All EaGLes Meeting, U.S. EPA STAR Program, Duluth, MN.

King, R. S. and D. F. Whigham. 2005. Linking watershed land cover to ecological indicators in streams and subestuaries of Chesapeake Bay. 53th Annual Meeting of the North American Benthological Society, New Orleans, LA.

King, R.S., M.E. Baker, D.F. Whigham, D.E. Weller, P.F. Kazyak, M.K. Hurd. 2005. Watershed urbanization and ecological thresholds in streams: influences of physiography, watershed size and spatial arrangement of impervious cover. Texas River and Reservoir Management Society Meeting, Waco, TX.

King, R. S. 2005. Estimating ecological thresholds for the development of numerical environmental criteria. Special Symposium and Panel Discussion on Nutrient Criteria. Regional SETAC meeting, Balcones Springs, TX. (Invited).

King, R.S., M.E. Baker, D.F. Whigham, D.E. Weller, P.F. Kazyak, M.K. Hurd. 2005. Watershed urbanization and ecological thresholds in streams: influences of physiography, watershed size and spatial arrangement of impervious cover. INTECOL-ESA meeting, Montreal, Canada. August.

Gorchov, D.L., D.F. Whigham and A.F. Innis. 2005. The role of tree-fall gaps in the invasion of exotic plants in forests: the case of Rubus phoenicolasius Maxim (Rosaceae) in Maryland, USA. USDA Invasive Species Symposium in Annapolis, Maryland
(January) and International Botanical Congress, Vienna, Austria. (2005)

Whigham, D.F. 2005. The history and status of North American beech (Fagus grandifolia). Beech Summit, Tadami, Japan. July. (Invited).

McCormick, M.K. R. van den Heuvel, D.F. Whigham, T. Filley, and C. Edwards. Soil fungal communities in successional and mature deciduous forests in Maryland: heterogeneity and implications for an ecological understanding of mycorrhizal interactions. INTECOL-ESA meeting, Montreal, Canada. August.

Innis, A.F., I.N. Forseth, and D.F. Whigham. 2005. Comparative demography of an invasive and native Rubus in two deciduous forests habitats. INTECOL-ESA meeting, Montreal, Canada. August.

Whigham, D.F., R.S. King, W.V. Deluca, and P.P. Marra. 2005. Phragmites australis in Chesapeake Bay estuarine wetlands: Linkages to past and present watershed activities. INTECOL-ESA meeting, Montreal, Canada. August. 2005

Whigham, D.F. 2005. Orchid ecology – the secret and not so secret lives of terrestrial orchids. Native Plant Conference. Norfolk Botanical Garden, Norfolk, VA. September. (Invited).

Whigham, D.F. 2006. Chesapeake Bay Linkages – watersheds, land-use and subestuaries. Back Bay Forum. Virginia Beach, VA. March 16, 2006. (invited).

Whigham, D.F. 2006. Linking estuarine indicators to land-use. Smithsonian Marine Station at Ft. Pierce. March 31, 2006.

Whigham, D.F. 2006. The underground world of orchids. Islands and Oceans Center, Kachemak Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve. Homer, AK. June 23, 2006

Whigham, D.F. 2006. Phragmites australis in Chesapeake Bay estuarine wetlands – linkages to past and present watershed activities. Seminar at Smithsonian Environmental Research Center. July 27, 2006.

M.K. McCormick, D.F. Whigham, D.L. Taylor, J.P. O’Neill, J. Becker, and S. Werner. 2006. Abundance of Corallorhiza odontorhiza (Orchidaceae) within an established population reflects abundance of ectomycorrhizal root tips and fungal community composition. 5th International Conference on Mycorrhizas. August, 2006. Granada, Spain.

Whigham, D.F. 2006. Wetland assessment, conservation, and restoration – how far have we come in the last couple of decades? 2006 Delmarva Wetlands Conference. Oct. 11, 2006. Dover, DE. (Invited keynote address).

Whigham, D.F. 2006. Quantifying linkages between land-use and aquatic resources. Utrecht University and Nijmegen University. September, 2006. Utrecht and Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Gorchov, D., D.F. Whigham and J. O’Neill. 2006. The role of disturbance in plant invasion: an experimental test of whether Rubus phoenicolasius will survive canopy closure. Botanical Society of America. July 31, 2006. California State University, Chico

Crow, S.E., T. Filley,, G Conyers, D. Stott, M. McCormick, D. Whigham, D.L. Taylor. 2006. Potential rapid effects on soil organic matter characteristics and chemistry following a change in dominant litter inputs. December 2006. American Geophysical Union. Annual Meeting, San Francisco, October, 2006.

Stringer, C.E., M. Cable Rains, D. Whigham, I. Feller and J.T.A. Verhoeven. 2006. Linkages between surface and subsurface hydrology and ecological functioning of mangrove ecosystems in Ft. Pierce, Florida. Geological Society of America. Annual meeting. Philadelphia, PA. October, 2006.

Whigham, D.F. 2006. Land-use patterns and indicators in streams and shallow subestuaries. Departmental Seminar. Mary Washington University, Fredericksburg, VA. Nov. 14, 2006. (Invited)

Tremblay, R.L., R.M. Bateman, A.P. Brown, M. Hachadourian, M.J. Hutchings, S. Kell, H. Kopowitz, C. Lehnebach, and D.F. Whigham. 2007. Density induced rates of pollinaria removal and deposition in the Purple Enamel-orchid, Elythranthera brunonis (Endl.) A.S. George. 3rd International Orchid Conservation Congress. San Jose, Costa Rica. March, 2007 (Presented as poster by R.L. Tremblay).

Whigham, D.F. 2007. Interactions between terrestrial orchids and mycorrhizal fungi – complexities at varying scales. Biology Department at Miami University and Biology Department at Wabash College on March 2 and 29, respectively.

Whigham, D.F. 2007. Linking land-use to ecological conditions in Chesapeake Bay – evidence for the pervasive impacts of watershed development. Invited public lectures at Miami University (Wilson lecture given annually) and at Wabash College (Cole lecture given annually) on March 1 and 28 respectively.

Whigham, D.F. 20007. Linkages between indicators of estuarine conditions and watershed land-use. Presented at Chesapeake Biological Laboratory, Solomans Island, MD. (Invited)

Tulbure, M.G., D.M. Ghioca, D.F. Whigham and C.A. Jounston. 2007. Comparative ecology of native and non-native Phragmites australis (common reed) genotypes. 2007 Society of Wetland Scientists Conference, Sacramento, CA.

Whigham, D.F. 2007. Plants in time: Historical impacts on woodlands. Invited lecture at the 25th Annual Meeting of the Southern Garden History Society. May 5. Annapolis, MD (included tour of SERC on May 6).

Stringer, C.E., M.C. Rains, D.F. Whigham, I.C. Feller, J.T.A. Verhoeven. 2007. Controls on the chemical hydrology and associated ecological structure and function in mangroves, Indian River Lagoon, Florida. Annual meeting of the Society of Wetlands Scientists, Sacramento, CA. June 2007

Whigham, D.F., I. Feller, C. Stringer, M. Rains, J.T.A. Verhoeven, P. van der Ven, and P. Baas. 2007. Linkages between surface hydrology and ecological functioning of mangrove ecosystems in Ft. Pierce, Florida. International Association of Landscape Ecology World Congress, Wageningen, The Netherlands. July, 2007

Whigham, D.F., A. Barendregt, S. Neubauer, and C. Craft. 2007. Climate change consequences for tidal freshwater wetlands at the east and west coast of the Atlantic. International Association of Landscape Ecology World Congress, Wageningen, The Netherlands. July, 2007

Burnett, R., M.K. McCormick, D.L. Taylor and D.F. Whigham. 2007. Uncovering the relationship between Tipularia discolor and mycorrhizal fungi necessary for recruitment. Annual meeting of the Botanical Society of America. Chicago, IL. July, 2007

K.M. Kettenring and D.F. Whigham. 2007. Seed germination and seedling growth of invasive Phragmites Australia from forested and developed watersheds of the Chesapeake Bay. Annual Meeting of the Ecological Society of America. San Jose, CA. August, 2007

Whigham, D.F. 2007. The invasion of the European Phragmites – examination of the causes and consequences for Chesapeake Bay ecosystems. Invited lectures at Utrecht University and Netherlands Institute of Ecology (NIOO-KNAW), Utrecht and Nieuwersluis, The Netherlands. September, 2007.

Whigham, D.F. 2007. Linkages between estuarine indicators and land-use. Invited lecture presented in Masters-level course on Landscape Ecology at Utrecht University. September, 2007

Whigham, D.F. 2007. Relating land-use patterns to indicators in Chesapeake Bay streams and subestuaries. Invited lecture. University of Maryland, College Park. Oct. 10, 2007

Kettenring, K and D.F. Whigham. 2007. What is driving the rapid expansion of the invasive Phragmites australis in the Chesapeake Bay. SERC Evening Lecture Series. Oct. 17, 2007

McCormick, M.K., K. Szlavecz, K. Parker, T.R. Filley, and D.F. Whigham. 2007. Effects of abundant non-native earthworms on plants and soil dynamics. Presented at the annual meeting of the Baltimore Long-term Ecological Research program. Oct. 18, 2007.

Whigham, D.F. 2007. Nitrogen and phosphorus limitation to the growth and clonal reproduction of Batis maritime, a dominant understory plant in Florida and Belize mangroves. Smithsonian Marine Sciences Symposium, Washington, DC . Nov. 15, 2007

Whigham, D.F., J.T.A. Verhoeven, M. Rains, P. Baas, and R. Laanbroek. 2007. Linkages between surface hydrology and ecological functioning of mangrove ecosystems in Ft. Pierce, Florida. Smithsonian Marine Sciences Symposium, Washington, DC. Nov. 16, 2007

Whigham, D.F. 2007. Headwater streams of the Kenai Lowlands, Alaska. Presentation at the Annual Volunteer Awards Dinner of the Jug Bay Wetlands Sanctuary. Held at SERC on February 22, 2007.

Whigham, D.F. 2007. Orchids and fungi: a subterranean mystery. Invited presentation at the Virginia Native Plant Society 2008 Workshop. Richmond, VA. March 8, 2007 and the Department of Landscape Ecology, Utrecht, The Netherlands. September 25, 2008.

McCormick, M.K., K. Kettenring, H.M. Baron, and D.F. Whigham. 2008. Watershed land-use and genetic diversity of non-native Phragmites australis in Chesapeake Bay subestuaries. Presented at annual meeting of the Atlantic Estuarine Research Society. Lewes, DE. April 13, 2008.

Whigham, D.F. 2008. Native orchids. 25th Annual Spring Wildflower Symposium. Wintergreen, VA. May 17, 2008

Whigham, D.F. 2008. Old growth forests in North America: ecology and conservation. 25th Annual Spring Wildflower Symposium. Wintergreen, VA. May 17 and May 18, 2008

Whigham, D.F. 2008. Conserving old growth forests in North America. Presented at two symposia in Japan (The 2nd International Beech Summit in Tadami – June 21-22, 2008 and International Symposium on old growth forests in Sapporo – June 29, 2008).

Baron, H.M., Kettenring, K.M., McCormick, M.K. and D.F. Whigham. 2008. Variation in seed viability, genetic diversity, and foliar nutrients of non-native Phragmites australis in the Rhode River, a subestuary of the Chesapeake Bay. Society of Wetland Scientists. Washington, DC. May, 2008

Whigham, D.F., S.J. Baird, C. Field, C. Walker, R.S. King, J.A. Back, M.C. Rains and J. Bellino. 2008. Headwater wetlands of the Kenai Lowlands, Alaska. Society of Wetland Scientists. Washington, DC. May, 2008

Baldwin, A.H., K.M. Kettenring, and D.F. Whigham. 2008. Seed banks of brackish Phragmites wetlands. Society of Wetland Scientists. Washington, DC. May, 2008

Gallagher, S.K., K.M. Kettenring, and D.F. Whigham. 2008. The effect of small disturbances on germination and emergence of Phragmites australis in brackish wetlands. Ecological Society of America. Milwaukee Wisconsin, August, 2008

Kettenring, K.M., M.K. McCormick, H.M. Baron, A.H. Baldwin, and D.F. Whigham. 2008. The potential for a seed-driven invasion of Phragmites australis in developed vs. forested watersheds of the Chesapeake Bay. Ecological Society of America. Milwaukee Wisconsin, August, 2008

M. K. McCormick, K. Szlavecz, K. Parker, T. R. Filley, and D. F. Whigham. 2008. Direct and indirect effects of abundant non-native earthworms on Goodyera pubescens Orchidaceae. Ecological Society of America. Milwaukee Wisconsin, August, 2008

Barendregt, A., A.H. Baldwin and D.F. Whigham. 2008. Tidal freshwater wetlands, a comparison between Europe and North America. In: Abstracts of 8th International Wetlands Conference INTECOL, Cuiabá, Brazil (20-25 July 2008).

Whigham, D. 2008. Headwater streams on the Kenai Peninsula (Alaska): landscape connectivity or what are the ecological consequences of so much Calamagrostis canadensis growing at the stream margin. Department of Ecology, Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands. September 26, 2008

Whigham, D.F. and K. Szlavecz. 2008.Invasive species at the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center: earthworms, plants and more. Maryland Department of Natural Resources. Annapolis, MD. December 10, 20008.

Whigham, D. 2008. Kenai Peninsula (Alaska) headwater streams – where are all the baby salmon and is the landscape context important for them? College of Marine Sciences. University of Delaware. Lewes, DE. May 12, 2009

Whigham, D.F. Mangroves-Smithsonian-SOWACOR. Presented at annual meeting of SOWACOR. Utrecht, The Netherlands. May 18, 2009.

Whigham, D.F. The ecology of Batis maritima in nitrogen (Florida) and phosphorus (Belize) limited mangroves. Society of Wetland Scientists. Madison, WI. June, 2009

Shefferson, R.P., M.K. McCormick, J.P. O’Neill, and D.F. Whigham. Life history evolutionary ecology in myco-heterotrophs: survival and vegetative dormancy in Corallorhiza odontorhiza. Annual meeting of the Ecological Society of America. Albuquerque, NM. August, 2009

Kettenring, K.M., D.F. Whigham, M.K. McCormick, H.M. Baron, S.K. Gallagher, A.H. Baldwin. Mechanisms of Phragmites invasion in the Chesapeake Bay: Disentangling the importance of land-use, disturbances, nutrients, genetic diversity, and viable seed production. Annual meeting of the Ecological Society of America. Albuquerque, NM. August, 2009

Szlavecz, K., M.K. McCormick, L. Xia, and D.F. Whigham. Complex interactions between earthworms and mycorrhizal fungi: The diverse effects of earthworm activity on Direct and indirect effects of earthworms on mycorrhizal fungi. Annual meeting of the Ecological Society of America. Albuquerque, NM. August, 2009

Kettenring, K.M., M.K. McCormick, and D.F. Whigham. A feedback mechanism for the spread of the invasive plant Phragmites australis – increased local genetic diversity and cross pollination can drive viable seed production. Annual meeting of the Botanical Society of America. Snowbird, UT. July, 2009

McCormick, M.K., T. Morcol, J. Saunders, K. Szlavecz, and D.F. Whigham. Direct and indirect effects of non-native earthworms on mycorrhizal fungi. Annual meeting of the Botanical Society of America. Snowbird, UT. July, 2009